One of the main hormones that regulate the metabolism in the human body is produced by the pancreas. The organ of the endocrine system can function normally, insufficiently or overactively. What causes elevated insulin in the blood? What are the research criteria and symptoms for hormonal imbalance? What are the causes of impaired endocrine organ and how to prevent its consequences?
Where does your own insulin come from?
The organization of the endocrine system is uniquely arranged and differs from the circulatory or nervous. The latter are like waterways or a branchy tree. The endocrine glands, including the pancreas, are locally located in different parts of the body. They produce organic chemicals called hormones.
Anatomically, the pancreas is located behind the digestive organ, on the left and comes to the spleen. Represent its location as follows: palm under the ribs with the direction from the left side to the navel. In the structure of the gland there are three parts: the body, the head and the tail. 98% of the total number of cells of the endocrine organ are engaged in the production of the required amount of digestive juice.
The remaining share of hormonally active structures performs a secretory function. Externally, these patches look like islands. In the 19th century, they were discovered by a German physiologist Langergans.
Cells named after a scientist, in turn, are of 4 types. Each variety has its own individual hormone production and the number of the total number of "islands":
- alpha (11%) - glucagon;
- beta (85%) - insulin;
- delta (3%) - gastrin;
- PP (1%) - somatostatin.
Most of the structural units of Langerhans are beta cells. They are located in the body and tail of the pancreas, in their head there.
Insulin is elevated with hypoglycemia.
Together with insulin "islets" produce C-peptide. This protein has no hypoglycemic (sugar lowering) properties. Knowing the amount of peptide is important in order to match it with insulin. This means that the same hormone molecule in the form of a chain accounts for the same amount of C-peptide.
Beta cells can store insulin. If necessary, it enters the blood in minutes. If the glycemic level is high due to frequent consumption of carbohydrate foods or injuries, pancreatic diseases (stones, inflammations, tumors), then the islets of Langerhans can produce it even more pathologically. And already with normal blood sugar, insulin remains elevated.
Why does the body need insulin hormone?
Specialists for the analysis of the hormonal amount introduced a special unit called insulin - ED. In a healthy adult, the total number of accumulated insulin should be about 200 U. The rate of its synthesis in the normal mode - up to 50 U per day. The mathematical calculation of the hormone produced is simple: approximately 0.5 U per 1 kg of weight.
The problem is that during the day the rate of its secretion (production) varies greatly - from 0.25 U / hour to 2.0 U / hour. It all depends on the sugar content in the blood. After taking carbohydrate foods (honey, sweets, fruits, products and meals made from flour, cereals, potatoes), the glycemic level rises sharply. Hormonal secretion is more intense to compensate for a temporary excess of glucose.
Hormones, produced by the organs of the endocrine system, affect a whole range of vital processes:
- metabolism and energy;
- cell growth and tissue regeneration;
- the level of sugar, calcium in the blood;
- synthesis of compounds (glycogen, glycerol, protein).
Insulin is the key that opens the cell membrane (sheath) when nutrients enter it. Cell attachments are necessary for the body to breathe, growth, movement, reproduction, development. On an empty stomach, capillary blood contains a basic amount of insulin. Therefore, an analysis done early in the morning before breakfast is considered indicative.
Symptoms with low sugar, respectively, increased insulin
In a healthy person, the pancreas responds to food intake by releasing an adequate portion of the hormone. This happens in any case after fasting, with overeating and eating sweets. Such short-term episodes with food practically do not threaten health.
The calculation of the dosage of the synthesized hormone is the same as that of a healthy person. In the 2nd type of the disease, the use of antihyperglycemic agents encourages the body to recover. Their incorrect dosage can lead to high levels of insulin in the blood.
In an extreme situation, when the pancreas is under pressure, it is forced to work harder. So, with:
- regular deviation from normal eating behavior;
- genetic predisposition;
- pancreatic diseases;
- viral infections.
In pregnant women, high insulin is more often observed in the blood during the last trimester, during labor and immediately after it. Shortly after giving birth, in most cases the glycemic background stabilizes. But the hormonal increase during the crucial period suggests that it is recommended to do in the future mother and baby (strengthen the immune system, avoid prolonged stress loads, follow the diet).
Why does a paradox arise - an excessive level of insulin in the blood during cell starvation?
Better low or high insulin?
The hormone of the pancreas has a direct release directly into the blood and is carried along with oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. It regulates the concentration of glucose in the blood and has a protein nature. Pathology is both a deficiency and an excess of insulin.
In the first case, diagnosed with type 1. Patients need them to inject synthesized hormone. In the second type, hypoglycemic agents (tablets, medicinal infusions and decoctions) stimulate the pancreas to produce the secret in full.
Diabetic disease is a danger of late complications in the blood vessels and nerve endings. Organs such as the heart, kidneys, eyes, and legs suffer. Sometimes there is a situation in which insulin and blood sugar are normal, but complex chemicals - lipids (fats) prevent the hormone from insulin from turning around and getting into the cell in time.
What should such patients do? They are shown as a special nutrition therapy - a diet low in fatty foods (butter, pork, walnuts). The weekly menu should provide for a smooth intake of not only carbohydrates, but also fats.
Hypoglycemic symptoms may be observed in adolescents in the pubertal period, experiencing jumps in the entire hormonal level. Young people and those at risk should be aware of the symptoms of hypoglycemia. Failure to take measures to eliminate it may lead to loss of consciousness and coma.
Increased insulin in the blood forces a person to take the necessary measures in time.
Modern medicine has the means to control and adjust the insulin level in the body, regardless of the current ability of the pancreas. Beta cells produce the same amount of protein and hormone. An analysis of the C-peptide in the blood can be done in order to obtain objective information about insulin.
This type of research serves to clarify the secretory function of the endocrine organ. In the insulin-dependent form of diabetes, conducting C-peptide testing does not make much sense. The residual function of the pancreas in this case is not in doubt.