From the glycemic index (GI) of the product depends on how quickly the blood sugar level rises after it is eaten. GI is low (0-39), medium (40-69) and high (more than 70). In case of diabetes, it is recommended to use low and medium GI foods, since they do not provoke sudden glucose jumps. The glycemic index of bread depends on the type of flour, the method of preparation and the presence of additional ingredients. However, whatever this indicator may be, it is important to understand that bread does not belong to the basic necessities of diabetes; by using it, it is necessary to observe the measure.
What is a bread unit?
Along with the glycemic index, the indicator "bread unit" (ХЕ) is often used to compile the menu and calculate the carbohydrate load. Conventionally, 1 XE means 10 g of pure carbohydrates (or 13 g of carbohydrates with impurities). One piece of white flour bread weighing 20 g or a piece of rye bread weighing 25 g equals 1 XE.
There are tables with information about the number of XE in a certain mass of different products. Knowing this figure, a diabetic can correctly make an approximate diet for a few days ahead and, thanks to a diet, keep blood sugar under control. Interestingly, some vegetables have so few carbohydrates in their composition that their ECU is taken into account only if the mass eaten exceeds 200 g. These include carrots, celery, beets and onions.
White flour products
This product contains a lot of simple carbohydrates, which are digested very quickly. The feeling of saturation because of this does not last long. Soon the man wants to eat again. Considering that in case of diabetes you need to observe certain dietary restrictions, it is better to give preference to foods high in fiber and slowly digestible carbohydrates.
The only situation where a slice of white bread can benefit a diabetic is hypoglycemia. To eliminate this condition, the body just needs a portion of "fast" carbohydrates, so that a sandwich can come in handy
GI rye bread on average - 50-58. The product has an average carbohydrate load, so it is not prohibited to use it, but it should be dosed out. With a high nutritional value, its average caloric content is 175 kcal / 100g. With moderate use, it does not provoke weight gain and gives a long feeling of satiety. In addition, rye bread is useful for diabetics.
The reasons are as follows:
- the product contains a large amount of fiber, which regulates intestinal motility and improves stool;
- its chemical constituents are amino acids, proteins and vitamins necessary for the proper functioning of the human body;
- due to its high content of iron and magnesium, this product increases hemoglobin in the blood and soothes the nervous system.
The blacker the bread is, the more rye flour is in it, which means that its GI is lower, but the acidity is higher. You can not combine it with meat, because this combination complicates the process of digestion. It is best to eat bread with light vegetable salads and soups.
One of the varieties of rye flour products - Borodino bread. Its GI is 45, it is rich in B vitamins, macro- and microelements. Due to the high content of dietary fiber, its consumption contributes to the reduction of cholesterol in the blood. Therefore, from the entire range of bakery products, doctors often recommend including this product in the menu of a patient with diabetes. A slice of Borodino bread weighing 25 g corresponds to 1 XE.
Borodino bread contains a large amount of selenium, which is necessary for normal functioning of the thyroid gland and the heart.
The glycemic index of bran bread products is 45. This is a fairly low figure, so this product can often be found on the table of a diabetic. For its preparation rye flour is used, as well as whole grains and bran. Due to the presence in the composition of coarse dietary fiber, such bread is digested for a long time and does not cause sharp fluctuations in the level of glucose in the blood of a patient with diabetes.
Useful properties of bran bread:
- saturates the body with B vitamins;
- improves the normal functioning of the intestines;
- boosts immunity due to antioxidants in its composition;
- gives a feeling of satiety for a long time without feeling heavy and bloating;
- reduces cholesterol in the blood.
Also produced bread from wheat flour with bran. It is possible to use such a product for diabetics, provided that the manufacture uses flour not of the highest, but of 1 or 2 grades. Like any other type of bread products, bran bread should be eaten within reasonable limits, not exceeding the daily amount recommended by the doctor.
A GI of whole-grain bread without flour is 40-45 units. It contains bran and germ of grain, which saturate the body with fiber, vitamins and minerals. There are also variations of grain bread, in which there is flour of the highest grade - they cannot be consumed in diabetes.
In whole grain bread, the grain retains its shell, which contains the maximum amount of useful enzymes, amino acids and vitamins.
The temperature of baking whole grain breads rarely exceeds 99 ° C, so part of the natural microflora of the grain remains in the finished product. On the one hand, this technology allows you to retain the maximum amount of valuable substances, but in diabetics with a “weak stomach” this may lead to digestive disorders. People with chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are better to give preference to classic bread products that undergo sufficient heat treatment.
GI bread depends on the flour from which they are prepared. This figure is the highest in wheat bread. It can reach 75 units, so this type of product is best not to use in diabetes. But for wholegrain and rye breads, the GI index is much less - only 45 units. Given their light weight, approximately 2 portions of this product contain 1 XE.
Bread for diabetics are made from wholemeal flour, so they are rich in fiber, vitamins, amino acids and other biologically useful compounds. They have a lot of protein and relatively few carbohydrates, so their use in the diet contributes to a smooth increase in blood sugar. There is often no yeast in the bread in grains, so they can be a good option for people with increased gas formation.