Diabetes in a child is a serious chronic disease that needs to be detected in a timely manner. Timely treatment will help protect you from the development of complications of an acute and chronic nature. In the presence of hereditary predisposition, it is important to take preventive measures to protect the child from the manifestation of a serious illness.
Among all chronic childhood diseases, diabetes is in second place. This disease causes more serious problems than with an increase in sugar in an adult. The fact is that in case of metabolic disorders, it is very difficult for a child 4 years and older to psychologically adapt among his peers. In the presence of type 1 diabetes in a child, the whole family must learn to adapt to a particular lifestyle.
Therapy has a short-term and long-term goal. Similar goals are to teach the child to adapt properly in the team, not to feel inferior among healthy children. The long-term goal is aimed at maximally preventing the development of severe vascular complications.
Diabetic Diseases in Children
A disease like diabetes develops when the glucose breakdown process is disturbed. The life expectancy of children with a similar diagnosis directly depends on the parents who discovered the disorder in time, turned to the endocrinologist and started the necessary treatment in time.
If you follow all the rules, a child with diabetes can live no less than ordinary healthy people. There are two main types of the disease - the first and second type of diabetes. They have different causes, symptoms, development and treatment.
With a lack of insulin in the blood, a child is diagnosed with the first type of disease. Cells are not able to produce the hormone in the required amount or do not release it completely. As a result, the baby's body can not cope with the processing of sugar, and the level of glucose in the blood increases dramatically. With this type of treatment, insulin is injected.
In the case of the second type of diabetes, the production of a normal amount of the hormone occurs, but in some cases an excess of the hormone is observed.
Because of this, there is a loss of insulin sensitivity, and the child’s body cannot recognize the hormone.
Symptoms of diabetes in young children
As a rule, the signs of diabetes in children 4 years of age manifest very quickly, over literally several weeks. If you detect suspicious symptoms, it is important to immediately consult a pediatrician and pass all the necessary tests.
Any symptom can cause a serious deterioration in health, so in no case should we ignore such a child’s condition. In diabetes, children can often drink, as the liquid helps to remove excess sugar from the body. In this regard, the child often goes to the toilet "in a small way." If the baby often urinates into bed at night, this can be a warning sign.
In diabetes, the child’s body is not able to provide the child with the necessary energy from the incoming glucose. As a result, subcutaneous fat and muscle mass are additional sources of energy. For this reason, weight is dramatically reduced, the child is rapidly losing weight.
- Despite the fact that diabetic children eat a lot, they constantly experience hunger, since satiation is very difficult. In some cases, the appetite may decrease, it is worth paying special attention, since such a symptom is often associated with a life-threatening complication in the form of diabetic ketoacidosis.
- The body of sick children does not receive energy from glucose, so the cells begin to suffer and send the brain a corresponding signal. As a result, the baby has a constant feeling of fatigue.
- Diabetic ketoacidosis can be reported by disturbing symptoms in the form of acetone smell in the mouth, nausea, rapid irregular breathing, drowsiness. Soreness in the abdomen. In the absence of emergency treatment measures, the child may fall into a coma, and death is also possible.
- In diabetes mellitus type I, girls may develop thrush, which usually disappears when therapy is started.
Why does diabetes mellitus develop in childhood?
The choice of treatment for the disease depends on the cause of the pathology in the child. The main reason is overeating, when children eat chocolates, buns and other foods with a lot of "light" carbohydrates. With uncontrolled nutrition and overeating of the sweet, the body overloads and begins to provoke the release of the hormone insulin into the blood vessels.
Next, there is a rapid depletion and stopping of the pancreatic cells, which are responsible for the synthesis of insulin. As a result, children have a decrease in insulin levels and the development of diabetes.
With frequent colds, there is a violation of the ratio of antibodies that the body produces. The immune system is inhibited, and the immune system fights against its own cells, which are insulin. Thus, the pancreas is affected and the level of the hormone in the blood decreases.
- If one of the parents or next of kin has diabetes, there is a high risk of developing the disease in the child. Children with hereditary predisposition are not necessarily born with diabetes, the disease often makes itself felt in adulthood or old age. Therefore, it is important to engage in prevention and not to provoke the body to the appearance of pathology.
- If a child moves a little and is inactive, he may become overweight and even obese. During active physical exertion, there is an increased production of insulin-producing cells, due to which the blood sugar level decreases, and glucose does not have time to turn into fat.
- In the case of overeating and obesity, glucose cannot be transformed into energy, which is converted into fat cells. Despite the excess insulin in the body, blood sugar cannot be processed.
Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed if clinical symptoms are manifested - the child has ketonuria, polydipsia, polyuria, hyperglycemia, and weight is reduced.
If after a blood test, the fasting indicators are 7 mmol / liter, the test is repeated. When receiving this indicator a second time, the doctor can diagnose the disease. Also, the disease is detected if the results of the study after a meal are 11 mmol / liter.
To detect diabetes in children, several types of research are being conducted. The level of glucose is determined on an empty stomach and after the child has drunk 300 g of the solution containing 75 g of glucose. To accurately determine the level of blood sugar, a finger blood test is performed every half hour for two hours.
There are certain rules according to which the doctor can determine the presence of the disease.
- In a healthy child with normal glucose tolerance, sugar on an empty stomach can reach 5.6 mmol / liter. After 0.5-1.5 hours after the test, the glucose level is no more than 11.1 mmol / liter. Two hours after taking the glucose solution, the figures are below 7.8 mmol / liter.
- In case of violation of the tolerance of the child's body to glucose, the sugar level on an empty stomach is 6.7 mmol / liter. After 0.5-1.5 hours, the indicators can be equal to 11.1 mmol / liter, and after two hours they are 7.8-11.1 mmol / liter.
The development of diabetic coma
With neglected diabetes mellitus, a child may develop a severe complication in the form of diabetic coma. Symptomatology in this case is accompanied by severe weakness, profuse sweating, tremors, a constant feeling of hunger.
A baby can have double eyes, tongue and lips go numb, so-called "seasickness" develops. At the same time, the child is not emotionally stable, he can be calm or overexcited.
In the absence of the necessary treatment and inattention to the patient, the children may develop symptoms in the form of hallucinations, tremors, strange behavior, and after a while the child may fall into a coma.
In order to prevent the development of such a state, the child should always carry a chocolate candy with him, they eat it in case of a sharp increase in insulin levels.
Such a simple measure will prevent the appearance of hypoglycemia.
Most often, children are diagnosed with the first type of diabetes. Its treatment consists of using an injection of insulin solution. The child is assigned a special therapeutic diet. It is important to eliminate fasting, food should be complete and useful.
In addition to breakfast, lunch and dinner, it is allowed to make a light snack of vegetable food. It is necessary to limit the consumption of foods that contain carbohydrates. If you constantly follow a diet, sugar levels gradually normalize and reduce the risk of severe complications due to an overabundance or a lack of the hormone insulin.
Usually, a short-acting insulin injection is prescribed to the child — Protofan and Actrapid insulin. The solution is injected with a syringe pen subcutaneously, thereby reducing the risk of overdose of the drug. After training, the child can do the injection himself, while the dosage is selected by the attending physician.
- In order to regularly monitor the indicators of glucose level and conduct a blood test for sugar at home, you should buy a special measuring device, a blood glucose meter.
- In the diary of a diabetic you need to enter every day information about what kind of food a child eats and how many products he has eaten. These data are provided to the endocrinologist when visiting the clinic, on the basis of the diary, the doctor can select the optimal insulin dosage.
- In the second type of the disease, the main therapy is to use a therapeutic diet. It is important to completely eliminate sweets and high-carb foods from the diet. For the calculation of carbohydrates using a special "bread unit". This indicator is sometimes indicated on packages of foreign products, so that a diabetic can control their own diet.
On the territory of Russia, a similar system for indicating the number of bread units has not been introduced, so parents should learn to independently calculate this indicator in each product. To this end, you need to know how much carbohydrate is contained in 100 g of food, the figure is divided by 12 and multiplied by the weight of the child.
Additionally, for any type of diabetes, mild exercise is prescribed. Exercise helps to lower sugar levels and increase the susceptibility of cells to the hormone insulin. To avoid glucose jumps, the baby must eat a certain dose of carbohydrates before, during and after class. It is important to avoid unbearable loads, as this will only harm the health of the child.
To reduce obesity, therapy is carried out using chromium, aristolokhievoy acid, Dubrovnik, Chitosan, momordika, Pyruvate. In the second type of disease, it is useful to eat peas, brewer's yeast, sage, fenugreek seeds, broccoli. To suppress feelings of hunger, it is recommended to use a homeopathic oral spray or a special patch.
Symptoms of diabetes in children are discussed in the video in this article.