Timely diagnosis of disorders of carbohydrate metabolism helps to identify diabetes mellitus in the early stages, and therefore prescribe treatment to prevent the toxic effect of glucose on the wall of blood vessels.
The started treatment and prophylactic measures at the stage of impaired glucose tolerance, which is considered to be a pre-diabetic condition, are especially effective. In this case, true diabetes may not develop.
What these patients should do, the doctor must decide on the basis of a full examination. Normally, normalization of nutrition, increased physical activity, preventive drug treatment and control of blood sugar are recommended.
Why can blood glucose increase?
Glucose for the cells of the body is the main source of nutrition. It is contained in food in its pure form, sucrose, fructose and starch eventually also turn into glucose molecules during biochemical reactions. Therefore, in the diet rich in carbohydrates, especially sugar and white flour, glucose in the blood quickly rises.
The second source of glucose is the glycogen stores in the liver and muscles, which breaks down when energy is needed between meals. The liver has the ability to synthesize new glucose molecules with a lack of glycogen. They are formed from protein and fat components. Regulation of this biochemical reaction occurs with the participation of hormones.
After eating, the increase in blood glucose stimulates insulin release by the pancreas. This is the main hormone that helps reduce sugar by passing glucose into cells. If the body is healthy, then after 1.5-2 hours in the blood the glucose concentration is normal.
In addition to insulin, glycemia is affected by the hormones of the adrenal glands, the thyroid gland, and the pituitary gland. They, along with growth hormone and glucagon, stimulate the growth of glucose in the blood. This is the main cause of high sugar in stress, acute circulatory disorders, infectious diseases, burns and injuries.
The most common cause of hyperglycemia is diabetes. It is accompanied by such disorders of carbohydrate metabolism:
- Insulin does not enter the blood, as the cells secreting it are destroyed (type 1 diabetes).
- There is enough insulin in the blood, but cell receptors have lost sensitivity to it (type 2 diabetes).
- Glucose from food cannot penetrate into the cells, its concentration in the blood is increased.
- Fat, muscle and liver tissue are starved because they absorb glucose with insulin.
- Glucose molecules attract water from the tissues and remove it through the kidneys - dehydration develops.
Diabetes is 2 types. The first type is insulin-dependent diabetes, since there is an absolute hormone deficiency due to autoimmune destruction of pancreatic cells. Such a condition is hereditary, and viruses, toxic substances, drugs, and stresses provoke its development.
Patients from the first days of the onset of symptoms need constant insulin injections, since without treatment they quickly increase blood sugar, and the level of ketone bodies that are toxic to the brain rises. With incorrect diagnosis and late introduction of the hormone may comatose state.
Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in older people who are overweight, against the backdrop of a sedentary lifestyle, high-carb and fatty foods, high blood pressure and systemic atherosclerosis. All these factors lead to the fact that the cells stop responding to insulin entering the blood.
In addition to hyperglycemia, type 2 diabetes is accompanied by hyperinsulinemia, which inhibits fat burning. Type 2 diabetes is also a hereditary disease, but its occurrence is influenced by factors that can be eliminated. What to do to normalize sugar? Follow a diet, move more and take the recommended medication.
During pregnancy, blood glucose levels may increase due to increased excretion of placental hormones. Such states can after childbirth transform into true diabetes mellitus or disappear.
Women with gestational diabetes should control blood sugar levels, since its growth can cause developmental pathologies in the fetus.
Blood test for sugar
You can check your blood sugar in the laboratory or at home with a glucometer. It can be different during the day, as the activity of the body, and hence the metabolic processes can not be the same. Therefore, in order to conduct a proper diagnosis, you need to donate blood in the morning on an empty stomach.
This means that the last time you can eat for 8-10 hours before the analysis, and on the day of the survey are allowed to drink only clean water in moderation. A false result can provoke smoking or playing sports before research, as well as taking medications, especially hormones.
A normal fasting blood glucose level can also be different when determining sugar in capillary and venous blood. It depends on the age of the patient, for young children and the elderly after 60 years of age, the values may not coincide with the average. A person is considered healthy if blood sugar is contained (in mmol / l):
- In the morning on an empty stomach - 3.3 - 5.5 in the blood from the finger, in the venous blood - 3.3-5.5, the plasma of the venous blood - 4 - 6.1.
- After eating after 2 hours or at any time outside the meal - below 7.8.
In diabetes, all these figures are higher. If the fasting glycemia exceeds 6.1, and after eating 11.1 mmol / l, then there are grounds for making such a diagnosis. In addition to overt diabetes, there may be transitional states when sugar is higher than normal, but lower than the level characteristic of diabetes.
Prediabetes is diagnosed in two versions - impaired fasting glucose. For example, sugar is 6–3 mmol / l, and after eating it is not higher than normal values. If sugar is high only after a meal (or sugar load), and on an empty stomach it is not higher than 6.1 mmol / l, then a diagnosis of impaired carbohydrate tolerance is made.
Thus, if blood sugar is 6 or more mmol / l, then the first thing to do is to undergo an additional examination in order to properly prescribe treatment and prevent further progression of metabolic disorders. Also, to eliminate false results, it is recommended that this analysis be carried out two or three times at different times.
Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism at the stage of pre-diabetic state are completely reversible in about half of the patients, while in others the development of diabetes can be delayed and its course will be easier if the patient adheres to the recommendations on the normalization of nutrition and lifestyle.
The most important factor that can help restore metabolic processes is the normalization of body weight. To do this, first of all you need to eat right. For patients with prediabetes, almost the same diet is prescribed as with clear diabetes. It may be the main remedy for a long period of time.
From the diet you need to completely eliminate sugar and white flour, as well as all products, without exception, that contain them. This recommendation also provides for the restriction of confectionery products for diabetics in the presence of overweight.
In addition to sugar, you need to reduce the consumption of honey, grapes, bananas, dates, potatoes, semolina and refined rice. In order to properly formulate a diet, you need to focus on the glycemic index of foods. This indicator reflects the ability to increase blood sugar. For pure glucose it is 100, and, for example, for cherries - 25.
It is not recommended to include fatty foods in the menu, especially of animal origin. The following foods have a high glycemic index:
- Fatty meats - lamb, pork, offal.
- Most sausages, sausages and wieners.
- Semi-finished and ready minced meat, canned meat and delicacies.
- Cooking oil, fat.
- Sour cream and cream above 10% fat, cottage cheese more than 9%.
- Butter (it is allowed to add 15-20 g per day to the finished dish).
- Canned fish in oil, fatty fish.
As a source of fat you need to use vegetable oils, they are filled with salads and ready meals. The basis of the diet should be low-fat protein foods - fish, chicken, turkey, beef in boiled or stewed form, dairy drinks, low-fat cottage cheese and milk, as well as vegetables.
As a side dish, you can recommend vegetable dishes or cereals from whole grains of oats, buckwheat, and pearl barley. Useful is corn porridge with type 2 diabetes.
The best combination for people with overweight and a tendency to increase sugar, blood cholesterol is boiled fish with a salad of fresh or steamed vegetables.
The second direction of prevention is dosed physical activity. It helps not only to reduce body weight, but also to increase the sensitivity of cells to the action of insulin, to activate metabolic processes. At the same time, the effect of practicing remains for another 30-48 hours - cells intensively absorb glucose from the blood.
You can choose the type of load in accordance with individual preferences and the level of fitness of the body. It has been proven that even a 30 minute walk a day is enough to maintain good insulin sensitivity and stabilize glycemia in the range close to normal.
Information about prediabetes is provided in the video in this article.