The body of a healthy person produces glucose in the amount necessary for the nutrition of organs, and the excess substance is excreted in the urine.
Patients with diabetes suffer from disorders in the endocrine system and pancreas. They have malfunctioning metabolic processes.
This contributes to an increase or decrease in blood sugar levels in diabetes, and an excess of carbohydrates in the patient's diet, stress, and strong exercise can affect the normal values.
Why is the glucose in the blood of a patient with diabetes always elevated?
Glucose provides the body with energy. Part of it upon receipt is deposited in the liver in the form of glycogen.
If the pancreas does not function properly, it does not produce enough insulin.
It is he who actively interacts with the liver, regulating the level of glucose in the blood. With its lack of excess sugar is released into the plasma, which can not be transformed into energy, hyperglycemia develops.
How much sugar should there be for type 1 and 2 diabetes?
If, after a fasting analysis, the norm exceeds the value of 5.5 mmol / l, an additional examination should be performed, since this is prediabetes. It is recommended to make a diagnosis with a load of glucose.
Blood sugar standards for diabetes (in mmmol / l):
|Research type||1st degree diabetes||Diabetes 2 degrees|
|Fasting||5, 5 - 7,0||Above 7.0|
|After load||7,8 -11,0||Above 11.0|
|Glycosylated hemoglobin||5,7 - 6,4||Above 6.4|
If the figures exceed 7 mmol / l, the doctor can diagnose grade 2 diabetes and prescribe medication. The patient will be recommended low-carb diet, regular exercise, emotional rest and constant monitoring of the amount of sugar in the plasma.
The rate of sugar on an empty stomach by age
Blood sugar levels are measured not only in the laboratory, but also with the help of a home-used device, a glucometer.
Values can fluctuate depending on the age of the patient, his physical activity, the activity of the pancreas that produces the hormone insulin. So that the data are not distorted, one cannot eat food eight hours before the examination.
Normal fasting indicators are:
- in infants - 2.8 - 3.5 mmol / l;
- in a child from one month to 14 years old - 3.3-5.5 mmol / l;
- in adults up to 45 years old - 4.1-5.8 mmol / l;
- from 60 to 90 years - 4.6-6.4 mmol / l.
In people older than 90 years, the plasma sugar level may be exceeded to 6.7 mmol / l.
Allowable glycemia after eating by age
Blood sugar always rises after eating. The sugar content is 7.8 mmol / l, if it fluctuates up to 11 mmol / l, the patient has prediabetes.
The number above 11, 1 indicates a second-degree disease. In children, after eating, the normal value is 5.1 mmol / l, if it is above 8, you can also talk about the development of the disease.
Symptoms of an indicator deviation in diabetics from the standardThose who suffer from fluctuations in plasma sugar levels should take regular measurements.
A high rate can develop serious diseases.
Patients have vision, sometimes blindness occurs. Severe forms of the disease cause such complication as diabetic foot, which leads to amputation of the limb.
If the amount of sugar is rapidly growing, the patient develops hyperosmolar coma. Many patients suffer from heart diseases, they develop renal failure, which provokes a lethal outcome.
If the glucose level is too high, the patient may fall into a diabetic coma, which is dangerous for the body weakened by the disease.
The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are:
- abundant urination;
- increased blood viscosity;
- low blood pressure;
- loss of sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium;
- lowering body temperature;
- reduced skin elasticity;
- lowering the tone of the eyeballs;
- muscle paralysis
In the case of an insulin-dependent type, a dangerous condition arises - ketoacidosis. In the blood there is a release of substances that are the product of the breakdown of fats. Ketone bodies poison the body, causing vomiting, abdominal pain. This condition manifests itself most often in children.
Sharp jumps of glucose to the smaller side are also dangerous. They can trigger brain damage, leading to stroke, disability. This happens because it lacks glucose, which is its main nutrient. Cells starve and die with a constant decrease in blood sugar levels.
High blood glucose is called hyperglycemia. The increase is due to an excess of carbohydrates and sugar in the diet, low mobility of the person.
Improper drug therapy for diabetes also affects the amount of substance in the plasma.
People who are often in a stressful state and those who have weakened immunity suffer from a pathological condition. These patients have a high risk of contracting infectious diseases.
With elevated levels of sugar in the blood of a person there is a constant hunger, the smell of acetone from the mouth, frequent urination, excessive sweating, sudden weight loss, a feeling of thirst, dry mouth.
Low scoreWith hypoglycemia, the level of glucose in the blood drops below the 3.9 mmol / l mark.
The body does not have enough building material to maintain vital functions.
A jump may occur at any time. Patients suffering from hypoglycemia, feel constant weakness, malaise, dizziness. Their heart beats faster, dots and flies appear before their eyes.
They experience trembling in the limbs, hunger. Patients are restless, their memory is impaired, they are consumed by a constant feeling of fear. The skin of patients with pale color.
Treatment of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia
According to the results of the analysis, the doctor prescribes appropriate therapy. With hyperglycemia, he is prescribed glucose-lowering drugs.
He must follow a low-carb diet, reduce sugar and calorie intake. Regularly need to measure the level of glucose in the blood.
The patient should drink plenty of fluids so that an excess of the substance goes out with the urine. It is important to exercise, to avoid unnecessary disturbances. If the glucose level is exceeded significantly, patients are given an injection of the hormone insulin.
If the glucose level is less than 3.9 mmol / l, the patient has hypoglycemia. As an emergency measure for hypoglycemia, you need to take 15 g of fast carbohydrates or a glass of juice, or 3 teaspoons of sugar dissolved in water, or 5 lozenges.
Hypoglycemic seizures are copied with the help of sweet
You can drink a glucose tablet, then carry out the analysis using a glucometer. If the situation has not improved, again take glucose, try not to miss another meal. It is advisable to immediately consult a doctor.
About blood sugar levels in diabetes in the video:
With diabetes mellitus, many significantly fluctuate blood sugar levels. With a decrease in the amount of glucose (less than 3.9 mmol / l), hypoglycemia is diagnosed, with an increase (greater than 5.5) - hyperglycemia. The causes of the first condition can be stress, adherence to a strict diet, physical stress, chronic illnesses.
Both states are dangerous for a person at risk of stroke, malfunction of the internal organs, vision. In severe cases, the patient falls into a coma. For the prevention of pathology, it is recommended to regularly take a glucose test.
Screening for liver ailments, severe obesity, problems with the adrenal glands, diseases of the thyroid gland is shown. It is also advisable to take an analysis periodically to athletes.