People who are diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, or elevated blood sugar levels, are recommended to continuously monitor this indicator - up to several times a day.
Of course, you don’t run into a clinic or a laboratory, and home blood glucose meters come to the rescue: you pricked your finger, squeezed a drop of blood, and the result is immediately known.
Naturally, to assess the result, it is important to know what the rate of sugar in capillary blood is, so that, if sugar is significantly elevated or lowered, take action immediately.
Difference between capillary and venous blood analysis
Probably the blood test is the most frequent test. Conducting such a study allows us to identify not only problems of the circulatory system, but also diseases of various organs (maybe not yet visible to the patient himself), and hidden inflammatory processes in the body.
For analysis, the material - blood - can be taken in two ways:
- from the pad of the finger (as a rule, the ring finger of the left hand) - such blood is called capillary;
- from a vein (mainly in the crook of the elbow) - the material is called venous.
Preparing for the material intake by any of these methods does not differ: it is recommended to donate blood on an empty stomach, a day before the analysis it is necessary to avoid heavy physical exertion, stress, alcohol consumption.
By its chemical composition, blood taken from a finger differs significantly from material taken from a vein: capillary blood contains less leukocytes and platelets, it is “poorer” compared to venous blood. In addition, for analysis, capillary blood is used in “pure” form - as it was obtained, and plasma is extracted from the venous plasma and its composition is already analyzed.
This is due to the fact that venous blood is unstable and changes its composition over time, which can distort the results of tests.
Due to the difference in the two types of blood, the results of the same analysis performed on capillary and venous blood will be different, but the normal values differ.
So the rate of sugar in the blood, taken from the finger, significantly differs from the rate of sugar in the plasma of venous blood.
The rate of sugar in the blood of a finger on an empty stomach: a table by age
The value of normal levels of sugar does not depend on gender: for men and women, they are the same.
But the norm is different for people of different ages: in newborns, normal values are much lower than in adolescents or adults (this is due to the fact that in infants the pancreas is not yet sufficiently developed and does not work at full strength), and in older people the level of sugar in the capillary blood is allowed higher than that of young people.
The table shows how the normal indicators of sugar in capillary blood on an empty stomach change throughout life:
|Age years||Norm of sugar, mmol / l|
After eating, the sugar level rises, and the upper limit of normal for an adult is 7.8 mmol / l.
In addition, in women during pregnancy, the “normal” frame is slightly moved apart: during this period, glucose levels may be slightly elevated, and values from 4.6 to 6.7 mmol / l are considered normal.
An elevated number indicates the development of gestational diabetes — a condition that is dangerous for both the mother and the unborn child.
Values that exceed the norm, signal about any pathologies in the body up to diabetes. If the level of sugar in the capillary blood is elevated, additional studies are scheduled for which venous blood will be used.
Allowable plasma glucose level in a diabetic person in the morning before meals
The normal values considered are valid for a healthy person. In case of excess of the level of sugar in capillary blood of 7.0 mmol / l, most often we can speak about diabetes.
The test for glucose tolerance and the analysis of glycated hemoglobin will help to clarify the diagnosis. Based on the totality of the results of these analyzes, it is safe to make or reject the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
The table shows the usual (average) values of tests for diabetics and healthy people:
|Type of analysis||Diabetes is||No diabetes|
|Sugar in the morning on an empty stomach, mmol / l||5,0-7,2||3,9-5,0|
|Sugar after 1 and 2 hours after a meal, mmol / l||about 10.0||not higher than 5.5|
Causes and danger of deviations from the standard
Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia are the most common causes of deviations from the normal results.
Most often, the blood sugar level exceeds normal values. In this case, talking about hyperglycemia.
Symptoms of hyperglycemia are:
- constant thirst;
- frequent and profuse urination;
- dry mouth, inability to get drunk;
- skin itching, dryness and cracking of the skin;
- rapid pulse, frequent, heavy breathing;
Hyperglycemia is dangerous because it can develop very quickly and almost asymptomatically: this is why diabetes mellitus type 1 is often diagnosed in children only when they are admitted to hospital in a state of hyperglycemic coma.
If the sugar level is below normal, this condition is called hypoglycemia. Irregular nutrition, stress, increased physical exertion, strict diets with low carbohydrate content lead to a decrease in glucose level.
In diabetics, hypoglycemia is possible due to excessive administration of pills for reducing sugar or disrupting the pancreas.
Symptoms of hypoglycemia are:
- fatigue, apathy;
- feeling of weakness, dizziness;
- irritability, outbursts of aggression;
- strong feeling of hunger.
Thus, the brain signals a lack of nutrients, which for it is glucose.
If you do not take measures to increase the level of sugar with such symptoms (eat candy, for example), then the person’s condition worsens: convulsions appear, loss of consciousness, a person may fall into a coma.
Glucose monitoring with a glucometer at home
Pocket blood glucose meters, suitable for measuring glucose in capillary blood anytime, anywhere, are very common now.
Their convenience lies in the fact that a person who is forced to constantly monitor the level of sugar can easily do it at home or at work, he does not need to run to the clinic or laboratory every day, and the result is known in just a few seconds.
In order for the testimony to be reliable, it is important to follow certain rules:
- wash hands before taking blood;
- test strips must be properly stored and expiration dates must be kept (for example, after opening the container with strips, they must be used within three months);
- the process of collecting blood and placing it on the analyzer is described in detail in the instructions for the device: you must follow it carefully;
- if the meter does not remember the results, it is better to record them in a separate notebook with the date and time of measurement;
- Store the device in a protective case, away from direct sunlight.
About a blood test from a finger and from a vein in video:
The process of measuring the blood glucose level with a home blood glucose meter is extremely simple, and the frequency of measurements does not impair the quality of life. Moreover, this procedure is necessary for diabetics: their health and life depend on it.