Strong stress is an ordeal for the whole body. It can cause serious disturbances in the functioning of internal organs and cause many chronic diseases, such as hypertension, stomach ulcers, and even oncology. Some endocrinologists believe that stress can lead to the development of such a dangerous disease as diabetes.
But what impact do physical and emotional experiences have on the pancreas and can blood sugar increase on nerve soil? To understand this question it is necessary to understand what happens to a person during stress and how it affects sugar levels and glucose uptake.
Types of stress
Before talking about the effect of stress on the human body, it should be clarified what exactly is a stressful state. According to the medical classification it is divided into the following categories.
Emotional stress. It occurs as a result of strong emotional experiences. It is important to note that it can be both positive and negative. The negative experiences include the threat to life and health, the loss of a loved one, the loss of expensive property. To positive: the birth of a child, a wedding, a big win.
Physiological stress. Serious injury, painful shock, excessive physical exertion, severe illness, surgery.
Psychological. Difficulties in relationships with other people, frequent quarrels, scandals, misunderstandings.
Managerial stress. The need to make difficult decisions that have decisive implications for the life of a person and his relatives.
Causes of increased sugar during stress
In the language of medicine, a sharp jump in blood sugar under a stressful situation is called "stress-induced hyperglycemia." The main cause of this condition is the active production of adrenal hormones of corticosteroids and adrenaline.
Adrenaline has a great effect on human metabolism, causing a significant increase in blood sugar and increased tissue metabolism. However, this role of adrenaline in increasing glucose levels does not end there.
With prolonged exposure to stress on a person, the concentration of adrenaline in his blood increases steadily, which affects the hypothalamus and starts the work of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. It activates the production of stress hormone - cortisol.
Cortisol is a glucocorticosteroid hormone whose main task is to regulate human metabolism in a stressful situation, especially carbohydrate metabolism.
By acting on the liver cells, cortisol causes an increased production of glucose, which is immediately released into the blood. This hormone significantly reduces the ability of muscle tissue to process sugar, thereby maintaining a high energy balance of the body.
The fact is that regardless of the cause of stress, the body reacts to it as a serious danger that threatens the health and life of a person. For this reason, he begins to actively develop energy, which should help a person to escape from the threat or join in the fight with her.
However, most often the cause of strong stress in a person becomes situations that do not require great physical strength or endurance. Many people experience serious stress before exams or surgery, worrying about losing their jobs or other difficult life situations.
In other words, a person does not perform high physical activity and does not process glucose that has filled his blood into pure energy. Even a completely healthy person in such a situation may feel a certain ailment.
And if a person has a predisposition to diabetes or he suffers from excess weight, then such strong experiences can lead to the development of hyperglycemia, which in turn can cause complications such as glycemic coma.
Stress is especially dangerous for people who have already been diagnosed with diabetes, because in this case the sugar level can rise to a critical level due to a violation of insulin production. Therefore, all people with high glucose levels, especially with type 2 diabetes, should take care of their nervous system and avoid serious stress.
To lower the sugar level under stress, you must first eliminate the cause of the experience and calm the nerves by taking a sedative. And so that sugar does not begin to rise again, it is important to learn to remain calm in any situation, for which you can practice breathing exercises, meditation and other relaxation methods.
In addition, patients with diabetes need to always carry a dose of insulin, even if the next injection should not happen soon. This will allow the patient to quickly lower the glucose level during stress and prevent the development of dangerous complications.
It is also important to note that sometimes latent inflammatory processes, which the patient may not even suspect, become a serious stress to the body.
However, they can also provoke ailment, like hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus, when sugar will regularly rise to critical levels.
Nervous system damage
The human nervous system can suffer from diabetes mellitus not only under the influence of severe stress, but also directly due to high blood sugar levels. The defeat of the nervous system in diabetes mellitus is a very common complication of this disease, which in varying degrees, occurs in all people with high glucose levels.
Most often, the peripheral nervous system suffers from a lack of insulin or the insensitivity of the internal tissues to it. This pathology is called peripheral diabetic neuropathy and is divided into two main categories - distal symmetric neuropathy and diffuse autonomic neuropathy.
In distal symmetric neuropathy, the nerve endings of the upper and lower extremities are mainly affected, as a result of which they lose their sensitivity and mobility.
Distal symmetric neuropathy is of four main types:
- Sensory form, flowing with sensory nerve damage;
- Motor form, in which mainly affects the motor nerves;
- Sensomotor form, affecting both motor and sensory nerves;
- Proximal amyotrophy, includes a whole complex of pathologies of the peripheral neuromuscular apparatus.
Diffuse autonomic neuropathy disrupts the functioning of internal organs and body systems and in severe cases leads to their complete failure. With this pathology possible damage:
- Of cardio-vascular system. Manifested in the form of arrhythmias, high pressure and even myocardial infarction;
- Gastrointestinal tract. It leads to the development of atony of the stomach and gallbladder, as well as night diarrhea;
- Genitourinary system. Causes incontinence and frequent urination. Often leads to sexual impotence;
- Partial damage to other organs and systems (lack of pupillary reflex, increased sweating, etc.).
The first signs of neuropathy begin to manifest in a patient, on average, 5 years after diagnosis. The defeat of the nervous system will occur even with the correct medical therapy and a sufficient amount of insulin injections.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that remains practically incurable even if you invest in it all you can. Therefore, you should not fight nephropathy, but try to prevent its complications, the likelihood of which is especially increased in the absence of proper body care and the wrong dosage of insulin. The video in this article will tell you about the stress of diabetes.