Everything you need to know about blood sugar testing: what does it show how it is dealt and decoded?

A blood test for sugar is an effective type of research that allows you to get complete information about whether diabetic processes occur in a patient's body and how likely it is to develop them.

The name of the survey is relative, since the sugar itself, the presence of which is allegedly detected during this analysis, is absent in the blood.

Instead, doctors check the biomaterial for the presence of glucose, into which the sugar consumed in food is converted, since it is its increased level that will contribute to the development of diabetes and related complications.

Blood test for sugar: what is it?

A blood test for sugar is passed strictly on an empty stomach, in the morning. To study take material from the capillaries (from the finger). However, from time to time, the patient can also be given blood for sugar from a vein to obtain more accurate data.

The analysis can not be given to patients suffering from infectious diseases.

What shows?

After studying the biological material specialists receive information on the level of glucose in the blood. Usually, this indicator is expressed in digital equivalent. The result obtained is compared with generally accepted norms, on the basis of which the patient is made a preliminary diagnosis.

Research methods may vary in different laboratories.. Therefore, having received the indicators slightly exceeding the established norms, you should not worry.

In this case, pay attention to the standards established by this laboratory (usually they are written in the research form).

Names of methods for determining blood glucose in the laboratory

There are a number of laboratory methods to determine whether there is a violation of carbohydrate metabolism in the body, as well as to specify the pathology.

Depending on what exactly should be clarified by specialists, the doctor may order the patient to undergo the following studies:

  • general analysis. This is the usual version of the blood test, which is usually taken from the finger, and if necessary - from the vein. In healthy men and women, in a capillary blood in a healthy state should not contain more than 5.5 mmol / l glucose, and in the venous - 3.7-6.1 mmol / l. If the doctor has doubts about the data, he can give the patient a referral for other laboratory tests;
  • glucose tolerance test. This analysis is also called fasting glucose test with a load. This examination allows you to record the level of glucose in the blood plasma. The analysis is given on an empty stomach. After this, the patient, after 5 minutes, drinks a glass of water with glucose dissolved in it. Next, samples are taken for 2 hours every 30 minutes. Passing such an examination allows you to detect the presence of diabetes, and also to determine whether glucose tolerance is impaired in the body;
  • daily monitoring. This analysis is often referred to as CGMS. This study reveals latent hyperglycemia. For this, the Guardian Real-Time system is installed for 3-5 days, which every 5 minutes (288 times / day) determines the level of glucose in the blood. Measurements are carried out at the expense of the sensor, and the system alerts about critical changes with a sound signal;
  • glycated hemoglobin. The combination of hemoglobin with glucose is inevitable. The more sugar in the blood of the patient, the higher the rate of association, and the greater the number of glycohemoglobin contained in the biomaterial. Passing the study makes it possible to determine the level of glucose in the blood for 1-3 months prior to analysis. The procedure is necessary for patients who suffer from diabetes of both types.

Who needs to be tested and why?

Patients suffering from carbohydrate metabolism may experience various symptoms. Each patient carries the disease in its own way.

There are some common signs in which a blood test for sugar can be given to a patient. These include:

  • drowsiness;
  • increased breathing;
  • intense thirst;
  • frequent urging to the toilet;
  • sharp deterioration in sight;
  • peeling and excessive dryness of the skin;
  • poorly healing wounds.

Also, the analysis can be assigned to the patient if there is a suspicion of hypoglycemia, the presence of which can also be hazardous to health.

The fact that the body lacks glucose may indicate:

  • sweating and weakness;
  • increased fatigue;
  • depressed state;
  • constant hunger;
  • trembling in the body.
Passing through the analysis will either confirm the specialist’s concerns, or eliminate the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

How is a laboratory blood sugar test done?

Patients who have never taken a blood test for sugar have always been interested in this question. To obtain a reliable result, it is necessary to begin the process with proper preparation for the survey.

Preparation for the fence material

In order for the analysis to give the most accurate results, the following standards must be complied with without fail:

  • the last meal should take place 8-12 hours before the examination;
  • 48 hours should limit the consumption of alcohol, as well as caffeinated beverages;
  • you should not brush your teeth or refresh your breath with chewing gum before taking the test;
  • before the study should not take drugs.

The above requirements apply to children. They also need to follow a starvation diet before taking the study.

You should not be examined if you had an active training session, a physiotherapy session, an x-ray before, or did not have time to recover from an infectious disease.

Stressful situations also affect blood sugar levels. Therefore, if the day before you had to be very nervous, donation of blood is better to postpone.

Where does the material come from: from a vein or from a finger?

Finger blood is a type of general analysis, therefore it is performed as part of clinical examination. Such an analysis does not give an ultra-precise result, since the composition of capillary blood often changes. To obtain a biomaterial, the laboratory technician punctures the fingertip, where a large number of capillaries are concentrated.

If more accurate results are required, the patient is prescribed a blood test for sugar from a vein.

Due to the high sterility, the result obtained during such an examination will be more accurate. To study the laboratory will need 5 ml of blood. The material is taken from a vein using a sterile syringe.

Interpretation of research results

The unit for measuring blood glucose is mmol / L. Each analysis has its own norms. But it is also worth taking into account the fact that each laboratory uses its own methods for studying the biomaterial.

Therefore, it is recommended to undergo a study in the same medical center, as well as inquire about the method of research by which the result is obtained.

What the analysis results mean:

  • if the patient was found to have a glucose level of up to 3.3 mmol / l, then hypoglycemia develops in him;
  • indicator from 3 to 5.5 mmol / l is the norm and indicates a healthy state of the body and the absence of violations in carbohydrate metabolism;
  • if glucose was found in the blood from 6 to 6.1 mmol / l, it means that the person is in the prediabetes state;
  • indicators of more than 6.1 mmol / l indicate the presence of diabetes. To determine the type of disease and the degree of its complexity, the doctor may prescribe additional studies, as well as re-examine the patient.

Norms by age

Healthy indicators will depend on the age characteristics of the patient. Thus, an adult healthy person should have glucose in the blood of not more than 3.88 - 6.38 mmol / l.

For newborns, this indicator can vary from 2.78 to 4.44 mmol / l, and for children, it ranges from 3.33 to 5.55 mmol / l.

Algorithm for performing a test for plasma glucose level at home

Home blood glucose testing should also be carried out correctly.

As in any other form of research, everything must start with proper preparation.

The components necessary for the measurement should be prepared in advance and conveniently located on the table.

Adjust the puncture depth on the pen-syringe and remove the test strip. Also, you should decide in advance on the puncture site.

In adults, it is usually done on the phalanx of the finger. If there are already too many wounds in this place, you can use your palm or earlobe. Wash the material intake area thoroughly.

Now we start the measurement:

  1. Attach the syringe pen to the skin, press it and press the button to puncture;
  2. Wipe off the first drop of blood with a sterile cloth, and apply the second to the test strip. If necessary, insert a strip into the device in advance and turn on the device;
  3. Wait until the indicator appears on the screen. He will need to be recorded in a diabetic diary to monitor the situation.

Regarding whether to use alcohol to disinfect the skin, expert opinions differ. On the one hand, this liquid allows you to eliminate harmful microbes.

And on the other hand, the slightest overdose of a substance will contribute to the distortion of the measurement result. Therefore, alcohol is recommended to use only on road conditions.

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Laboratory blood sugar tests are just as important as regular home screening. Therefore, in order to prevent the development of diabetes and control the disease, it is recommended not to neglect either method of analysis.

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