Blood sugar analysis is the most reliable and objective indicator of the health status of people with diabetes. Decoding blood sugar tests is necessary in order to understand how serious is the situation with such an insidious disease as diabetes mellitus, because often there are no symptoms at all.
What does the blood test for sugar
Patients with diabetes are given a blood test, regardless of the type of diabetes. A blood test allows you to assess the state of the metabolic systems of the body and decide on the tactics of treatment of diabetic. The analysis assesses indicators such as glucose in the blood plasma, as well as the percentage of glycated hemoglobin.
Glucose is the main and most necessary source of energy for all tissues of the human body, especially the brain. Normally, the analysis determines glucose in the range of 3 mmol / l to 6 mmol / l, which is the physiological values of glycemia. Glucose can be measured both in capillary blood, using a mini-glucometer, and in venous blood - by a stationary analyzer. The concentration of glucose in capillary blood plasma and venous blood may differ slightly, on average, fluctuations in the sugar level of 1 mmol / l are allowed.
What is the definition of glucose?
Blood sugar is the main indicator that reflects the work of carbohydrate metabolism in the human body. A whole cascade of organs and systems is responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, so that by the level of glucose in plasma and hemoglobin one can judge the functional activity of such organs and systems as the pancreas, liver, neurohumoral system.
Particularly relevant monitoring of glucose in plasma in people suffering from various forms of diabetes. In diabetes, there is a violation of the production of basal insulin, a hormone responsible for the utilization of glucose, which leads to the accumulation of the latter in the blood, while the body's cells literally begin to starve and experience an energy deficit. For patients with insulin-dependent type of diabetes, continuous monitoring of blood glucose is vital, as insulin overdose or deficiency significantly affects the progression of diabetes. Only with the help of constant determination of sugar is it possible to keep glucose at the optimum values.
To increase the accuracy of the results of the analysis and obtain the most objective data on the chemical composition of blood, before passing the analysis, it is necessary to adhere to some rules:
- It is necessary to abandon the consumption of alcoholic beverages and alcohol-containing products at least one day prior to the analysis. Alcohol greatly affects the composition of blood.
- It is recommended to take the last meal 10 hours before the sugar test, i.e. on an empty stomach In this case, use plain water without additives is not prohibited.
- On the day of direct testing of sugar, you should skip the morning teeth brushing, as many toothpastes contain sugar, which can get into the gastrointestinal tract. Similarly, with chewing gum.
Allows you to conduct a rapid diagnosis of glucose in the plasma of peripheral capillary blood, which is not the most accurate, but valuable indicator. This method is easy to implement at home. For such home studies there is a wide range of portable blood glucose meters. However, for such a control at home, it is necessary to observe technical control measures for the meter, because storing test strips in the open state leads to their uselessness. Be sure to strictly follow the technical instructions and instructions attached to the meter!
Blood from a vein
Venous blood sampling is carried out on an outpatient or inpatient basis, i.e. in the hospital. Blood from a vein is taken in a volume of 3-5 ml. More blood is needed to determine the chemical composition of blood in an automated analyzer. The automatic analyzer allows you to get the most accurate data on the level of glycemia.
In order to correctly interpret the analysis, it is necessary to know the norms of glucose concentration and in what values they are measured. In the majority of forms with the results, right next to the obtained values, there are normal concentration ranges of substances to make it easier to navigate in numbers and results.
How is glucose indicated in the form? If everything is very clear with glucometers - they only display data relating to glucose, then with automatic analyzers things are more complicated, since a large number of other substances are often determined in biochemical analysis. On domestic forms, glucose is designated as such, but on foreign analyzers sugar is referred to as GLU, which is translated from Latin as glucose (sugar). The normal level of glycemia is from 3.33 to 6.5 mmol / l - these norms are typical for adults. In children, the rates are slightly different. They are lower than in adults. From 3.33 to 5.55 - in children of primary school age, and in newborns - from 2.7 to 4.5 mmol / l.
It is important to note that the analyzers of different companies interpret slightly different results, but all the norms remain within the range of fluctuations of less than 1 mmol / l.
Although in most cases blood sugar is measured in mol / l in a blood test, in some analyzers such units as mg / dL or mg% can be used. To convert these values to mol / l, simply divide the result by 18.
Results below normal
When the concentration of glucose in the blood falls below physiological values, this condition is called hypoglycemia. It is accompanied by characteristic symptoms. A person is worried about feelings of weakness, drowsiness and hunger. The reasons for lowering glucose levels can be:
- starvation or lack of carbohydrate food;
- improperly selected insulin dose;
- hypersecretion of own insulin;
- strong physical exertion;
- neurohumoral diseases;
- liver damage.
Results above normal
When the concentration of glucose in plasma is above normal values, a state such as hyperglycemia is formed. Hyperglycemia may be associated with such conditions:
- violation of blood donation rules;
- mental or physical stress during the test;
- endocrine disorders;
- pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas);
Specialized Glucose Tests
For endocrinologists, when forming patient management tactics, glucose concentration in peripheral blood is not enough; for this, diabetes patients undergo special laboratory blood tests for sugar, which determine parameters such as glycosylated or glycated hemoglobin, glucose tolerance test.
Glycated hemoglobin is the concentration of sugar as a percentage in the blood protein - hemoglobin. The norm is 4.8 - 6% of the total protein. Glycated hemoglobin is an indicator of carbohydrate metabolism in the body over the past 3 months.
The tolerance test is performed for all patients with suspected diabetes mellitus, and it is based on a glucose load test to determine the level of sugar in certain time intervals 60, 90 and 120 minutes from the use of 75 g of glucose solution.