After a prolonged inflammatory process that affects the pancreas, doctors diagnose complications of acute pancreatitis. Changes are irreversible, lead to the development of necrosis phenomena.
Early complications are due to the cause: there is a release of toxic substances, which were formed as a result of the breakdown of the soft tissues of the internal organ. In the second week, in the absence of proper treatment, late negative effects appear. They are associated with the spread of secondary infection.
In the chronic form of the disease suffers liver, biliary tract. The destruction of the pancreas provokes the formation of cysts, fibrosis, can lead to cancer. Changing local immunity contributes to the occurrence of the inflammatory process.
With the alcoholic nature of the disease, pancreatonecrosis develops almost instantaneously against the background of toxic effects. If you do not start timely treatment, the disease will lead to disability or death.
Types of complications
There are many complications that are provoked by an attack of pancreatitis. For simplification in medicine, the classification identifies two main types: late and early negative effects that caused the disease.
Postnecrotic syndrome, purulent complications of acute pancreatitis, and pleuro-pulmonary consequences are particularly severe.
Postnecrotic phenomena of a reactive attack are divided into shock and renal and hepatic failure.
A large release of excess enzymes and toxic substances into the blood leads to the development of early complications:
- Cardiovascular insufficiency.
- Irreversible changes in the lungs.
- Bleeding in the intestines, stomach.
- Mental disorders.
- Thrombosis of blood vessels.
- Inflammation of the serous membrane.
With hepatic-renal failure, the liver significantly increases, urination is absent (sometimes constipation), or, conversely, an increase in the proportion of urine per day is observed. Arterial indices grow, skin and mucous membranes become dry.
In 50% of patients, the consequences of an acute attack occur in the form of a peritonitis of a serous or purulent form.
Acute pancreatitis and consequences
In an acute attack, peritonitis develops, which is aseptic in nature. This is a terrible complication, accompanied by an active aggressive effect on the abdominal cavity.
Due to intoxication, the activity of the kidneys and liver is disturbed. There may be serious problems with the functionality of the gastrointestinal tract, the development of toxic pneumonia, pulmonary edema.
Late complications of the acute form develop after a period of relative stabilization of the patient. Usually in 20-25 days from the beginning of the pathology. Most often diagnosed purulent consequences. The worst of them is blood poisoning.
- Abscess in the abdominal cavity.
- Parapancreatic syndrome.
- Pancreatic necrosis.
- Pylephlebitis (inflammatory process of the portal vein).
- Pseudocyst or cyst.
Tumor neoplasms, lymphadenitis (caused by intoxication of the body), panic attacks (a consequence of the negative effects of toxic substances), multiple organ failure of the internal organs are negative consequences.
If pancreas festers and cysts form, this phenomenon is referred to as a life-threatening condition. Surgical treatment is required. The prognosis is favorable only with timely treatment.
Often there are arrosive bleeding - a pathological condition caused by the breakthrough of a blood vessel in the inflammatory focus.
Consequences of a chronic disease
The consequences of a chronic disease include abnormalities in the functioning of the internal organs that are related to the functionality of the pancreas. The liver and biliary ducts are most commonly affected.
The patient is diagnosed with a reactive type of hepatitis, cholestasis, cholecystitis - an inflammatory disease of the bile ducts, purulent cholangitis.
The formation of cysts due to the difficulty of outflow of pancreatic juice through the ducts inside the body. There are several types of neoplasms - true and false. In approximately 80% of clinical pictures, a false cyst is diagnosed.
Numerous studies have shown that pancreatitis refers to diseases that provoke cancer. In particular, pancreatic cancer.
There are other complications:
- Type 1 diabetes. The risk of development is higher if the patient has alcoholic pancreatitis.
- Iron-deficiency anemia.
In adult men and women, the disease can provoke portal hypertension, which leads to the formation of exudate in the abdominal cavity. In addition, varicose veins of the digestive tract develops, which is often manifested by massive bleeding.
In order to recognize complications in time, it is necessary to monitor the body temperature, pressure, pulse, and patient's breathing.
Complications of chronic pancreatitis and its exacerbations are treated in stationary conditions. Based on diagnostic measures and laboratory tests, the doctor recommends the optimal treatment regimen. It always varies, as it depends on the specific consequences of the disease.
Assign infusion treatment - a method of therapy, which involves the introduction into the meek solutions that prevent the pathological loss of the body. Be sure to prescribe fasting, antibacterial drugs and other drugs. Often carried out the use of extensive drainage of infected tissue.
After this mechanical procedure, a fistula appears, which complicates therapy. In general, preference is given to medicines. Pharmacology is a large assortment of drugs.
If an early loss of pancreatic juice occurs at an early stage, this is still not an indication for surgery. Pancreatic insufficiency, which is caused by a fistula, can be compensated by pills. In most cases, the fistula heals independently. If it connects with the cavity or ducts, the regeneration process is significantly slowed down.
For the treatment of fistula may prescribe Octreotide. Daily dosage: 100 mcg subcutaneously three times a day, the duration of therapy is five days. The drug inhibits the activity of trypsin, has an antispasmodic effect, prevents general intoxication.
The operation is shown in such phenomena as:
- The presence of bleeding in the cyst cavity.
- Hemorrhagic or purulent form of pleurisy.
- Diffuse peritonitis.
- Breakthrough cysts in the abdominal cavity.
- Tearing and suppuration.
In the postoperative period, antibacterial therapy is carried out (for example, Furazolidone), a special diet is required. Assign painkillers, administered up to 5 times a day.
Prevention of complications of pancreatitis
The principles of prevention include the exclusion of alcoholic beverages from the diet, quitting smoking, a balanced diet and proper lifestyle. Alcohol causes serious harm to the gland, especially frequent use and large dosages. Pancreatitis is strictly forbidden to drink. If this is not possible, reduce consumption to 1 time per month.
Healthy nutrition is the key to a long life. Patients must strictly adhere to the diet, do not load the body with heavy food. It is necessary to refuse fat and salty, to exclude all spicy dishes. Food products that include carcinogenic substances - preservatives, dyes, flavors, etc., should be discarded.
In chronic diseases with replacement purposes, it is recommended to take the drug Pancreatin. The dosage ranges from 16,000 to 32,000 units per day (up to 4 tablets) during a meal. The maximum daily dose is 18 tablets.
It is possible to arrest the pain in the pancreas with unconventional remedies. Many patients recommend taking a decoction or infusion based on the plant half-fell (only in consultation with the doctor).
What complications can cause pancreatitis tell experts in the video in this article.