In a balanced, proper and healthy diet of people suffering from diabetes of any type, all carbohydrates eaten are of particular importance.
It is very important to count their exact quantity. As you know, all products are different and differ from each other in their composition, properties, characteristics and energy value.
There is such a term as “bread unit” (XE). It will help to calculate bread units in case of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. So what is it? This is a unit that people with endocrine disabilities use to carefully count the amount of carbohydrates. One of them contains about 10 (excluding dietary fiber) or 11 (including ballast components) carbohydrates.
It increases the blood sugar level by approximately 2.78 mmol / l, and is also used to absorb about 1.4 units of the pancreatic hormone by the body. This article has a detailed table of bread units for type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Cereal units for diabetes
This concept was introduced specifically for patients suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Basically, we need a table of bread units with diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 for those who are on insulin
Patients need to calculate the appropriate amount of pancreatic hormone for injection, based on the daily amount of carbohydrates consumed.
Otherwise, hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia may appear (increase or decrease in sugar, respectively). Knowing the exact amount of these units contains a particular product, it is easy to correctly formulate a daily diet in the presence of diabetes mellitus of any type. If desired, you can replace one food with another.
When creating the term “bread unit”, the most common and familiar product was adopted as the basis - bread. If you cut one loaf of bread into standard slices (1.5 cm thick), then about half of such a piece, which has a weight of 26 g, will be equal to one unit.
When using special tables, you can calculate the exact amount of carbohydrates that were consumed in one meal. Not only the diabetes table, but also a special diabetic nutrition calculator can help to calculate XE.
Permitted Dairy Products
The following are the most popular dairy products, as well as the number of bread units in them (the content of the food in question is 1 XE below in milliliters, grams and pieces):
- fresh milk of any fat content - 1 cup (251 ml);
- kefir of any percentage of fat content - 250 ml;
- sour milk - 250 ml;
- unsweetened yoghurt - 250 ml;
- cream - 248 ml;
- condensed milk - 100 ml;
- cottage cheese with raisins or dried apricots - 50 g;
- curd mass with sugar - 100 g;
- ice cream - 60 g;
- cheesecakes - 1 medium;
- Ryazhenka - 300 ml;
- dry milk - 40 g;
- cottage cheese dumplings - 5 pieces.
Cereal and cereal products
Grain unit (XE) - the main component of the life of every diabetic.
It is important to remember that approximately one bread unit is equal to 25 grams of bread or 13 grams of table sugar.
In some countries of the world take about 15 g per one such unit.
It is for this reason that one should take a very careful approach to studying the existing XE tables in food, since the information in each of them may be completely different. At the present time, when compiling these tables, only carbohydrates that are absorbed by humans are taken into account, while dietary fibers, that is, fiber, are completely excluded.
Excessive consumption of carbohydrates in terms of bread units can provoke an urgent need for the immediate introduction of a large amount of pancreatic hormone - insulin. As a rule, this is required in order to neutralize postprandial blood sugar.
A patient with an ailment of the first type must very carefully examine his own diet for the number of bread units in food. The final volume of pancreatic hormone for administration per day directly depends on this. You should also pay attention to the size of “ultrashort” and “short” insulin before dinner.
High Carb Foods
The considered indicator should be counted only in the food that the patient uses, referring to the tables for people with endocrine disorders. However, a little later, patients begin to memorize the amount of food they need, which does not provoke the development of disorders in the body due to a sharp increase in the sugar content in blood serum.
This assessment is enough to correctly calculate the dose of the hormone. But, it is desirable to acquire special kitchen scales, which do not interfere in any kitchen.
As for cereals and grain products, an approximate table of bread units for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is as follows:
- any kind of bread (except butter) - 18 g;
- black bread - 24 g;
- bran bread - 35 g;
- Borodino bread - 13 g;
- crackers - 15 g;
- crackers - 15 g;
- breadcrumbs - 14 g;
- buns - 21 g;
- pancakes - 34 g;
- cottage cheese dumplings - 55 g;
- instant dumplings - 49 g;
- cheesecake - 48 g;
- small waffles - 16 g;
- wheat flour - 16 g;
- gingerbread - 41 g;
- fritters medium size - 31 g;
- pasta (thermally raw) - 16 g;
- boiled spaghetti, noodles - 51 g;
- croup (absolutely any) - 51 g;
- porridge (any) - 52;
- corn - 100 g;
- canned corn - 62 g;
- corn flakes - 16 g;
- popcorn - 14 g;
- oatmeal - 21 g;
- wheat bran - 52 g
In order that this category of food could not have a negative impact on the health of the patient, it is necessary to monitor the glucose level in the blood, both before and after meals. In no case can not exceed the existing rate of use of such products. It will help to calculate bread units in case of diabetes table.
As for vegetables, the table XE for diabetes mellitus type 2 and type 1 is as follows:
- carrots - 200 g;
- beets - 155 g;
- zucchini - 200 g;
- white cabbage - 255 g;
- cauliflower - 150 g;
- cucumbers - 550 g;
- Bulgarian pepper - 200 g;
- radish - 290 g;
- pumpkin - 224 g;
- tomatoes - 250 g;
- beans - 20 g;
- peas - 100 g;
- beans - 50 g
As you know, vegetables must be in the diet of every diabetic. Food in this category contributes to the control of serum glucose, reducing the risk of complications. In most cases, the probability of the occurrence of disorders in the health of the vessels and the heart muscle is significantly minimized.
Vegetables, as many know, are able to provide the body with such vital macro- and microelements as proteins, fiber, and potassium. As a snack, it is desirable to use raw vegetables with the lowest glycemic index.
Table of permitted berries in diabetes:
- watermelon - 255 g;
- lingonberry - 144 g;
- elderberry - 169 g;
- blackberries - 171 g;
- grapes - 71 g;
- strawberries - 166 g;
- cranberries - 119 g;
- strawberries - 220 g;
- gooseberry - 154 g;
- raspberries - 190 g;
- red currant - 199 g;
- black currant - 188 g;
- blueberries (blueberries) - 166 g
In the presence of diabetes, it is allowed to consume an impressive part of all fruits on the planet. But, nevertheless, there are still exceptions. These include grapes, bananas, mango and pineapple. They are able to increase the sugar content in the blood, therefore, their use should be significantly limited.
As for fruits, the table XE for them is as follows:
- apricots - 100 g;
- quince - 134 g;
- pineapple - 144 g;
- orange - 154 g;
- banana - 67 g;
- cherry - 99 g;
- pomegranate - 165 g;
- grapefruit - 167 g;
- melon - 100 g;
- figs - 87 g;
- Kiwi - 100 g;
- lemon - 267 g;
- mango - 114 g;
- tangerines - 134 g;
- nectarine - 100 g;
- peach - 111 g;
- plums - 89 g;
- persimmon - 78 g;
- sweet cherry - 110 g;
- apple - 90 g
SweetsAs a rule, this category of products contains sucrose. This suggests that they are undesirable for people with diabetes.
The only exception is the food that is created on the basis of sugar substitutes.
Most modern nutritionists agree that these confectionery products are not completely safe.
The fact is that some refined substitutes can provoke a set of extra pounds, which is highly undesirable for people with endocrine disorders.
As for sweets, the table XE for them is as follows:
- refined sugar - 9 g;
- chocolate - 19 g;
- honey - 11 g;
- chocolate candy - 18 g;
- fructose jelly (any) - 240 ml;
- caramel - 13 g
With such a disease as diabetes, the XE table can make life much easier. About how to properly consider XE for diabetes, in the video:
CALCULATION concerns not only food, but also beverages. This is especially important for fruit juices, nectars, tea, as well as varieties of coffee. A person with serious violations of the working capacity of the pancreas must lead a correct lifestyle, eat accordingly and do not forget about the counting of bread units.
It is also very important to drink enough purified water. Many experts recommend their patients green tea, which not only has a positive effect on blood pressure, but also lowers the cholesterol content in the body.