Establishing a diagnosis of diabetes helps to start treatment of disorders of carbohydrate metabolism and reduce the toxic effect of glucose on blood vessels. Especially successful for the prevention of complications is the early detection of predisposition to diabetes mellitus at a stage when there are still no obvious clinical symptoms.
It has been proven that glycemic control in latent diabetes reduces the risk of not only diabetes, but also severe cardiovascular disease. Therefore, if the blood sugar level of 5.9 is detected from the finger, then it is necessary to go through additional tests to resolve the issue - what it means and what to do to maintain health.
If diabetes is suspected, it is impossible to focus only on the symptoms of the disease, since its treachery is that a person for several years may not guess that he has diabetes, and the progression of organ destruction processes leads to disability and an increased risk of death from vascular complications .
How to determine the metabolic glucose?
Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus can only be carried out with blood tests. At the same time, a single fasting glucose test cannot reflect all carbohydrate metabolism disorders. It is prescribed as a selection method for further in-depth examination.
If the blood test revealed an excess of the norm, which for men and women is 5.5 mmol / l in the blood from a vein or a finger, then what should be done first is to repeat the test after a few days. If the result again shows that sugar is 5.9 mmol / l, then this is the reason for excluding impaired glucose tolerance.
The test for glucose tolerance is initially carried out in the same way as a fasting test, but the patient is additionally given a sugar load. To do this, the patient takes 75 g of glucose and repeated measurements of sugar should be done after 1 and 2 hours. If blood sugar after a load is higher than 7.8, but less than 11 mmol / l, then this is a reduced glucose tolerance.
At detection of smaller indicators diagnosed with impaired fasting glucose. Both of these conditions are related to prediabetes and serve as harbingers of cardiovascular disease. Active diagnosis of diabetes and its prevention is carried out in these patients:
- Increased body weight or obesity. Body mass index is more than 25 kg / m2.
- Low physical activity.
- There are relatives with impaired carbohydrate metabolism or diabetes.
- During pregnancy there was gestational diabetes mellitus, large-fruited pregnancy.
- Blood pressure is higher than 140/90 mm Hg. Art.
- Polycystic ovary.
- Age after 45 years.
- High blood cholesterol.
- There are symptoms of atherosclerosis or other vascular pathology.
Indirect signs of impaired carbohydrate metabolism can be erectile dysfunction and fatty degeneration of the liver, as well as persistent skin diseases, fungal infections.
If the test results are within the normal range, then they must be repeated again after 3 years, and after 45 years - within a year.
If you suspect prediabetes, an important criterion is the presence of hypertension or heart disease, as well as an increased risk of development.
Nutrition for latent diabetes
Studies have shown that lifestyle change is just as effective as the use of antidiabetic drugs for the prevention of diabetes. In this case, the combination of diet and exercise brings great results than using them separately.
Dietary nutrition with impaired carbohydrate tolerance is aimed at normalizing body weight and insulin secretion. For this, it is recommended to reduce caloric intake (up to 1500 kcal) in obesity and switch to a fractional diet, which decreases the volume of servings, and the frequency of meals increases up to 6 times, except for 3 basic ones 3 more snacks are added.
Weight loss should be at least 0.5-1 kg per week. If this rate is lower, then fasting days with a caloric content of 800-1000 kcal are additionally assigned. Nutritionists have come to the general opinion that they should be done once a week, using fish, vegetable or dairy dishes.
Strict restrictions at the stage of prediabetes are imposed on products containing sugar, white flour, and animal fats. Patients are advised to exclude from the diet:
- Sweet, puff pastry, white bread and crackers.
- Rich or fatty soups.
- Fatty meat, duck, smoked sausage.
- Canned food.
- Curd cheese, cream, salted cheese, fatty cheeses (above 45%).
- Semolina, rice, pasta.
- Raisins, dates, figs, grapes and bananas.
Sweet juices, carbonated drinks and ice cream, honey, candy and jam are not allowed. Beef, pork and mutton fat are also banned. The diet should be dominated by vegetables in the form of salads or boiled, greens, unsweetened berries and fruits, lean fish, meat and dairy products of reduced fat content without additives.
An important condition for proper nutrition for carbohydrate metabolism is the additional introduction of dietary fiber. For this, raw vegetables are recommended, as well as wheat or oat bran. They can be used as an additive in various dishes.
On the day you need to eat 30-50 g of bran, starting with a teaspoon with a gradual increase.
Physical activity with latent diabetes
In the absence of signs of atherosclerosis, any physical activity may be recommended in accordance with preferences, including practicing light sports. You can also increase physical activity by walking or climbing the stairs without an elevator.
The duration of classes for violations of carbohydrate tolerance is 30 minutes. At least 5 lessons per week. In order for classes to lead to an improvement in metabolic processes, it is necessary to calculate the heart rate. It is 65% of the maximum. The maximum heart rate is calculated: 220 minus age.
In the presence of coronary heart disease, the level of stress should be determined from the results of stress tests.
According to statistics, despite the ease of use, only a third of patients actually apply recommendations on dietary nutrition and dosed physical exertion, therefore, the rest (the majority) are given drug therapy.
Medications for latent diabetes
Correction of the early stages of carbohydrate metabolism with the help of drugs is used to reduce the resistance of tissues to the action of insulin, as well as increases in blood sugar on an empty stomach and after meals. The most effective at the stage of prediabetes are three groups of drugs, representatives of which are Metformin, Acarbose and Avandia.
For the correction of metabolic disorders in the initial manifestations, the drug Metformin is used. The best results are obtained with a combination of Metformin and lifestyle changes. Taking it not only does not increase body weight, but gradually lowers it. These results are more pronounced with obesity.
At the same time Metformin 850 helps to lower blood pressure and cholesterol in the blood. After 3 years, patients taking Metformin reduced the risk of developing diabetes by almost 80%.
The mechanism of its action is manifested by such effects:
- Increased sensitivity of tissues to insulin.
- Activation of insulin receptors.
- Enhancing glycogen synthesis.
- inhibition of gluconeogenesis
- By reducing the oxidation of free fatty acids, lipids.
- Slowing up the absorption of glucose in the intestine.
- Increased utilization of glucose by intestinal cells
High efficacy in preventing type 2 diabetes has been noted for Avandia. The administration of the drug at a dose of 8 mg reduced the risk of diabetes by 60%. One of the mechanisms of influence of Avandia on glucose metabolism is the acceleration of the penetration of glucose into cells and the decrease in its production by the liver.
Avandia also accelerates the formation of small cells in adipose tissue, which have more insulin receptors and glucose transporters, the drug inhibits lipolysis of adipose tissue, lowering the level of fatty acids in the blood. This, in turn, stimulates the muscles to absorb glucose from the blood.
The drug Glucobay (acarbose) inhibits the flow of glucose from the intestine, reducing early hyperglycemia and irritation of the pancreas. Taking this drug does not increase insulin production, which leads to a decrease in body weight and an increase in insulin sensitivity. In addition, Glucobay improves cell utilization of glucose, mainly in the muscles.
Reception Glukoby lowers fasting blood glucose by 1.5 mmol / l, and 2 hours after taking glucose (tolerance test) by almost 3 mmol / l. however, daily monitoring shows that its use does not cause pronounced fluctuations in glycemia. The result of long-term use of Glucobaya is to reduce the risk of cerebral circulation.
The positive effect of acarbose on reducing pressure, the risk of vascular pathology, overweight, the rise of glucose in the blood after eating, manifestations of hyperinsulinemia, as well as the correction of disorders of fat metabolism, make it possible to use this drug for the prevention of diabetes and vascular pathology.
Treatment of prediabetes folk remedies
Herbal medicine is widely used in the early stages of the pathology of carbohydrate metabolism. This is due to the fact that plants not only lower glucose levels, but act more as regulators on the functions of the liver, kidneys and pancreas.
Reception of herbal teas from walnut leaves, raspberries and blueberries with diabetes as well as bean leaves, dandelion roots and chicory brings results only on the background of diet therapy and physical activity. Such a combined treatment of latent diabetes can delay the appointment of drug therapy and manifestations of diabetes.
The video in this article presents products that reduce blood sugar.