Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a rather large variation in the forms of the disease. One of them is lipoatrophic diabetes.
This disease differs from uncomplicated diabetes in a different clinical picture. Lipodystrophy in diabetes is a dangerous complication requiring close attention of specialists.
What is lipoatrophic diabetes?
With this type of complication, there are processes that lead to the absence of adipose tissue in a patient. Lipoatrophic diabetes is characterized by high body resistance to insulin preparations and an increase in the liver, often leading to cirrhosis and other diseases.
Also characterized by the absence of diabetic ketosis and hypermetabolism with a functioning thyroid gland. In newborns, the primary symptom may be dystrophy of adipose tissue, and diabetes develops over 10 and even 15 years later.
In adults, on the contrary, the appearance of diabetes is primary, and lipodystrophy manifests itself several years after the detection of insulin deficiency, usually after a viral illness. Changes to which the subcutaneous adipose tissue and collagen undergo are rather visually noticeable.
Usually their development is associated with the introduction of insulin injections. Sometimes the pathology develops after a short time after the injection. And in some patients, on the contrary, it appears 5 or 10 years after starting insulin.
Types of insulin lipodystrophy in diabetes mellitusThe reasons for the development of this process are still unknown.
With a fairly high degree of certainty, the lipoatrophic form of diabetes can be distinguished from an uncompensated disease.
The main difference between these two forms is the absence of muscular dystrophy in the first case with the almost complete inability of the body to accumulate fat deposits. Subcutaneous fat continues to fade and does not accumulate even in the case of a high fat content in the patient's diet.
Most often the so-called atrophic lipodystrophy develops. It is characterized by the absence of adipose tissue, which develops in the places of regular insulin administration. At the same time, in the places of injections there is also a lesion of the skin, which is clearly visible to the naked eye.
The second type of diabetes atrophy is lipohypertrophy. It is caused by hypertrophied fat deposition at injection sites. As a result, lipomas are formed, commonly known as "wen".
The main reasons for the development
Significantly the cause of the phenomenon is unknown. However, experts have established factors that are likely to provoke the development of this pathology.
The causes of lipodystrophy include:
- regular injury to the tissue during the injection;
- allergic tissue reaction to the drug;
- changes in the hormonal background of the patient.
The factors that increase the risk of pathology, also include obesity, infectious diseases, unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle. Conducting injections in violation of the rules also contributes to lipodystrophy.
In particular, getting into the puncture of alcohol causes a microscopic burn and contributes to the development of pathology. There is a hypothesis that the development of lipodystrophy also affects the immune-metabolic response of the body to the introduction of foreign insulin.
Perhaps it is because of the forced reprocessing of the "alien" hormone by the body that the pathological lipoid metabolism mechanism is triggered.
In addition, a person’s immune system may react to a portion of insulin that gets into the subcutaneous fat layer as a foreign antigen.
In the process of its destruction lipoid tissue is also injured.
Typical symptoms in diabetics
It is important to recognize lipodystrophy in time and in time to ask for help.
Symptoms such as redness and thinning of the skin in frequently injected areas are typical for the development of pathology.
In this case, it is possible to quite clearly identify the boundary of the affected part of the body. Over time, the sensitivity of such a skin area to various injuries increases. Even small cuts and scratches heal very poorly, development of purulent ulcers is possible, and in the absence of treatment even gangrene can develop.
In quite rare cases, atrophy of adipose tissue develops in a certain distance from the injection sites. This situation makes it difficult to diagnose at the initial stage and is mainly characteristic of women.
Features of treatment
In case of detection of lipodystrophy, a set of measures is applied, aimed both at eliminating the causes of the pathology and reducing its negative effects.
First of all, the replacement of insulin preparations is practiced. The safest is highly purified mono insulin.
According to some reports, the hormone produced by the glands of cattle most often causes abnormalities in the body. Electrophoresis of affected areas, paraffin waxing, inductometry are carried out. A very effective tool is the ultrasonic effect on the affected areas.
Fluctuations reach deep tissues and stimulate blood circulation and metabolism. Also, a certain effect brings the use of local ointments containing hormones.
About the importance of the alternation of injection sites for insulin therapyBoth in the treatment of pathology and in its prevention it is important to correctly administer insulin-containing preparations.
It is necessary to alternate places of injections. Injection can be done at the same point no more than once every two months.
Also important is the temperature of the drug. It is best to use insulin, heated to 36 degrees. It is acceptable to use medication at room temperature, but not cold.
The drug should be administered slowly and deeply enough. A good solution is to purchase an insulin pump or special injectors in the shape of a pen. Be sure to change the needle before each injection.
Prevention for the prevention of diabetic complications
In addition to the methods described above, it is necessary to adhere to other rules that prevent complications.
It is important to maintain the correct water balance.
It is necessary to consume up to 3 liters of liquid (including first courses), while giving preference to natural and high-quality water.
Causes and treatment of lipodystrophy in diabetes mellitus:
Compliance with these rules, and the correct introduction of insulin, will prevent such a dangerous complication as fatty tissue dystrophy, and not carry out a rather complicated and relatively painful treatment.