Where insulin is produced in the body

Insulin is a hormone that performs a huge number of functions, among which are not only the regulation and control of blood sugar levels, but also the normalization of carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. With a deficiency of this hormone in the body, various diseases start to develop, including diabetes mellitus, which, unfortunately, is still an incurable disease. And to understand how its development takes place, it is necessary to know exactly what insulin is produced in the human body and whether it is possible to increase its secretion.

What body is responsible for producing insulin?

Speaking about how and where insulin is produced in the human body, it should be noted that the main organ that produces this hormone is the pancreas. This organ has a complex structure, it is located behind the stomach and is the largest gland of all that is in the human body. Consists of several parts:

  • bodies;
  • heads;
  • tail.

The main part of the body is the body, which in its appearance resembles a trihedral plasma. The gland body itself is enveloped in the duodenum, the head is located on its right side, and the tail is on the left.

In addition, the pancreas has islets, which appear as clumps of cells. They are responsible for insulin production in the body. These islands have their name - the islands of Langerhans and pancreatic islands. They have very small sizes, but there are a lot of them (about 1 million). Moreover, their total weight does not exceed 2 g, and this is only 3% of the total mass of the body. However, despite such small sizes, these islets successfully produce insulin and ensure the normal flow of lipid, carbohydrate and protein exchanges.

Functions of the pancreatic islets

As mentioned above, insulin is produced in the body by pancreatic islets, which are a collection of cells. They have their name - beta cells. Insulin secretion is activated by them immediately after a person has consumed food, with which much glucose enters the body, requiring urgent splitting and assimilation, otherwise it begins to settle in the blood, which causes disruption of many organs and systems.

The structure of the pancreas

As a rule, insulin secretion is impaired when beta cells are damaged or when negative factors, such as alcohol or stress, are affected by the pancreas. And when the gland produces insulin in insufficient quantities, sooner or later diabetes begins to develop.

Initially, this hormone is produced by beta cells, and then it is transported to the Golgi complex. It is here that he reacts with various substances, after which the C-peptide begins to be released. Only after passing through all these processes, insulin is enveloped in secretory granules and remains in them exactly until the moment when hyperglycemia occurs in the body, that is, blood sugar rises.

When the level of glucose in the blood rises beyond the normal range, the beta cells begin to emit insulin in the granules into the bloodstream, where its membrane breaks and it enters into a chain reaction with sugar, splitting it and delivering it to the cells of the body.

Insulin synthesis

In modern society, people often eat fatty and carbohydrate-rich foods. Because of this, the pancreas is constantly subjected to stress and wear, as a result of which insulin in the human body begins to be produced in smaller quantities. This is the main and common cause of such a large spread of diabetes among the world's population. And if earlier it was diagnosed mainly in the elderly, today this disease is more and more often detected in young people, whose age does not even exceed 25 years.

Important! If after the amount of insulin produced is reduced, the person also continues to live his usual life, not abandoning fatty and sweet food, as well as bad habits, the situation worsens every year, the metabolic processes are disturbed and serious complications begin to develop.

Insulin functions

The production of insulin in the human body is a complex process. But no less easy is his work to neutralize excess sugar in the blood, which occurs in several stages. Initially, after insulin is produced by the pancreatic islets, the cells of the body give a response, increasing their permeability. Due to this, sugar begins to penetrate through their membrane, where it is converted into glycogen, which is immediately transported to the muscles and liver.

Glycogen is the main reserve source of energy. Most of it accumulates in the muscle tissue and only a small amount penetrates the liver. In the human body, its amount is approximately 0.5 g, but under heavy loads it decreases.

Strange as it may seem, the pancreas produces insulin, which has the opposite effect of glucagon, which is also synthesized by the island of Langerhans, but not by beta, but by alpha cells. After it is produced, glycogen is released and the blood sugar level rises.

It is thanks to these processes and maintains balance in the body. Insulin provides the secretion of digestive enzymes that contribute to the normal digestion of food, and glucagon does the opposite: it increases G-protein mediated adenylate cyclase and speeds up the formation of cAMP. All this leads to the activation of catabolism in the liver.

And summing up the small results, it should be noted that the pancreas not only produces insulin, but also other hormones, without which the normal functioning of the body is impossible.

Functions of hormones produced by the pancreas

How to prevent a decrease in insulin production in the body?

If the pancreas produces the hormone insulin normally, then all the processes of digestion and metabolism occur as expected. But as soon as the secretion of the hormone is reduced, health problems immediately appear. It should be noted that this does not happen in a flash. Pancreatic diseases develop slowly, but this is the whole catch, since at the very beginning of their development they are asymptomatic, and when the symptoms appear, the ability to cure them already disappears.

How does insulin work

Therefore, each person needs to regularly carry out prophylaxis to reduce insulin secretion. And it is carried out simply. For this you need:

  • eliminate from the diet of foods high in fat and carbohydrates;
  • to refuse from bad habits;
  • do sport;
  • try to avoid stressful situations.

In other words, in order for the insulin-producing pancreas to work always well, you just need to lead a healthy lifestyle.

How to increase insulin secretion in the body?

It has already been said above why there is a decrease in insulin production in the body. The reason for this may be unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, bad habits or stress. But even if a person leads a correct lifestyle, unfortunately, it is not always possible to prevent the development of this serious illness. And the reason for this is a genetic predisposition.

Therefore, many people ask themselves: how to make insulin produce in a normal amount by the pancreas? In that case, if the work of the gland is already disturbed, this can be corrected only with the help of preparations containing insulin. Their dosage is selected individually and it depends on the characteristics of the organism and the degree of violation of the synthesis of the hormone.

In addition, it is imperative to maintain a balanced diet. It is recommended to eat in small portions and 5-6 times a day. The more often the food enters the stomach, the more active the synthesis of insulin. However, someone who suffers from diabetes should know which food helps pancreas work and which does not.

For the pancreas to work properly, you need to eat a balanced diet.

The following foods help to activate insulin stimulation:

  • kefir;
  • cabbage;
  • apples;
  • blueberries;
  • parsley.

If these products are constantly present on the table of the diabetic, the human body will begin to produce better insulin and the risks of further progression of the disease are reduced.

It should be noted that in some cases, to ensure the normal operation of the pancreas, it is sufficient to simply follow a therapeutic diet. But with severe damage to the organ, it is insufficient and then replacement therapy is prescribed, which involves the use of insulin injections.

Unfortunately, the pancreas is an organ that does not have the ability to heal itself. Therefore, if his cells are damaged, their functionality cannot be resumed. It is for this reason that diabetes and other diseases of the pancreas are considered incurable diseases. Therefore, doctors are advised to constantly carry out their prevention, especially since it is not as difficult as it may seem at first glance.

Watch the video: Insulin Production and Type 1 Diabetes (September 2019).