December is a wonderful time! Especially if the thoughts about the upcoming holidays warm, frost invigorates, and the state of health is great. But, alas, this is not always the case, because in the cold you can easily catch a cold or the flu. These diseases are much more dangerous than it seems at first glance when it comes to patients with diabetes.
The fact that they need to pay special attention during the treatment of influenza and colds, whether to use folk remedies, tells Larisa Vladimirovna Rzhavskova, endocrinologist of the Medsi clinic on Polyanka. We give the floor to our expert.
The first thing to remember is that the flu is more dangerous for people with diabetes than it is for the others, because it significantly worsens the general health. Catarrhal diseases also affect the course of diabetes itself: glucose indicators begin to change significantly, even taking into account the fact that in diabetes of the first type, a person follows the prescribed scheme for insulin therapy, diet therapy and counts bread units, and in diabetes of the second type, takes drugs in pill form.
Usually, influenza or acute respiratory infections significantly increase blood glucose levels.
The reason this happens is that substances that inhibit the effects of insulin are produced to suppress infection by the body. In particular, insulin cannot affect cell utilization of glucose.
Possible risks to be aware of
With type 1 diabetes, there is a risk that ketoacidosis (an acute condition due to insulin deficiency) will develop during the flu or cold. Type 2 diabetes is a dangerous development of coma. In the area of special risk - children, people with pathologies of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and in old age.
Blood glucose should be measured at least once every 3-4 hours.
Sometimes when the temperature rises to high levels, glucose cannot be brought back to normal with the help of medicines. In such situations, insulin therapy is prescribed by the endocrinologist.
With a cold, hunger is always reduced. But people with diabetes should not skip meals. After all, fasting can cause hypoglycemia (a condition in which glucose decreases to a critical level). In case of influenza and acute respiratory infections, you should remove fried, fatty and salty from the menu. Preference should be given to cereals, boiled and stewed foods, soups, not forgetting about vegetables and fruits.
You do not need to eat a lot of food, it is enough to eat healthy meals in fractional portions every 1.5-2 hours. If this is not possible due to poor health, it is recommended to eat at least twice a day, to eat soft foods, such as jelly and yogurt.
You need to drink every hour in small sips of 250 ml of any liquid from the recommended. Thus it is possible to eliminate dehydration. It can be ordinary drinking water, as well as cranberry juice, dogrose broth, broth (meat or vegetable), tea without sugar. Broths and herbal infusions (leaves and fruits of raspberry, chamomile, sage, echinacea) are very useful. But all of them should also be prepared without sugar and taking into account the concomitant pathology of the heart and lungs.
How to choose medications
Medications that people with diabetes take for colds are not very different from the usual ones. These are the same candy, pastilles and syrups, but not containing sugar. Usually the manufacturer indicates this information on the package, but nevertheless it is necessary to read the instructions for use.
NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) for people with diabetes are usually not recommended for use. The reason - the increased risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease. In case of diabetes mellitus type 2, it is recommended to avoid the use of glucose-containing drugs. But you can choose to increase the immunity of unsweetened fruits, vegetables and preparations containing vitamin C.
Herbal inhalations are allowed if they are not allergic. They are effective as a decongestant and help cope with coughing. Inhalation can be done using a special device - a nebulizer - or use folk remedies: for example, inhale the smell of onions or garlic, cut into pieces.
Cold treatment with folk remedies for diabetes: pros and cons
At first glance, it seems that folk remedies are harmless and certainly can not harm, but this is not the case when it comes to treating colds and flu in people with diabetes.
- In diabetics, caution is used in soaking the feet (in diabetic neuropathy, thermoregulation may be reduced on the feet, so you may not feel the temperature of the water and get burned (scald with boiling water).
- Socks with mustard at night are dangerous if there are small wounds on the feet, sores - this is fraught with aggravation of suppuration and infections.
- Raspberry jam, honey, milk with honey, compotes, boiled from dried fruits with the addition of honey, orange juice will trigger an increase in blood sugar levels, which, as we remember, and so rises.
- And vice versa - in order to avoid sugar falling, you should not take ginger tea, parsley juice, beetroot, cabbage and potato broth, and also eat onions and garlic on an empty stomach.
- All thermal procedures, baths, saunas, are not performed when the temperature rises and the symptoms of flu and acute respiratory infections are an extra burden on the cardiovascular system.
- It is possible to put mustard plasters and make inhalations over a saucepan with boiled potatoes, but only if the patient has no temperature.
About the benefits of prevention
People with diabetes and a weakened immune system should take standard measures recommended by everyone to prevent diseases that can aggravate the underlying disease. It is necessary to carefully monitor hygiene - wash your hands, coming from the street and before eating, do not touch the mucous eyes and nose with dirty hands, do washing with saline solutions, especially when in contact with those who are sick. If someone from the family has caught a cold, it is necessary to ventilate the apartment as often as possible and to carry out wet cleaning. These simple but equally effective actions will definitely help.