The sugar analysis is included in the list of mandatory studies. It is often prescribed for the onset of diabetes.
With elevated rates, the doctor refers to the delivery of other studies on sugar. Their results provide an opportunity to evaluate the full clinical picture and conduct optimal therapy.
What does the study show?
Glucose is found in many organs and tissues of the body. It plays a certain role in the functioning of the organism - a substance energizes every cell. Its quantitative content is regulated by hormones. It is a violation of insulin production that causes a violation of glucose uptake and, as a consequence, an increase in its concentration.
With the passage of the main study is determined by the quantitative content of indicators in the blood. Deviation from acceptable values may indicate an existing disease. The diagnosis of diabetes is advanced after repeated testing with data above the diagnostic limit of 7 mmol / l.
A common cause of high rates is diabetes. Also, their abnormalities indicate liver disease, endocrine disorders, problems with the hypothalamus. Additional laboratory tests are prescribed to confirm or refute diabetes.
Some symptoms may indicate a latent form of diabetes or pre-diabetes.
- the presence of sugar in the urine in several cases with normal indicators in the analysis;
- moderate increase in sugar, which does not exceed the diagnostic limit;
- neuropathy or renopathy.
Types of testing
The following types of sugar tests are distinguished:
- standard analysis (an alternative may be a rapid test);
- glycated hemoglobin;
- glucose tolerance test.
Standard and Express Test
To identify the pathology will help the standard analysis, which is passed in medical institutions. For the study is taken as capillary and venous blood. It is considered the most informative laboratory method.
In what cases is appointed:
- feeling of dry skin and mucous membranes;
- frequent urination;
- feeling of lethargy and weakness;
- constant thirst;
- various injuries do not heal for a long time.
Blood glucose measurement is considered a major laboratory test for detecting diabetes. For persons older than 40 years, doctors recommend to check once every 2 years for the presence of type 2 diabetes. Deviation from the norm can be determined 2-3 years before the clinical diagnosis.
You can check glucose using the express test - the patient receives the results in 5-10 seconds. Studies carried out using a special device (glucometer). The discrepancy with laboratory analysis is about 11%. The device is intended more to control the concentration of glucose in the detected disease.
Glucose Tolerance Analysis
One of the clarifying analyzes, which is prescribed for high sugar, is the glucose tolerance test. It can be recommended for pregnancy, pre-diabetic condition, problems of carbohydrate metabolism. This method of research allows you to record the level and dynamics of glucose in the blood.
Violation of tolerance may be a harbinger of type 2 diabetes. With changed indicators, some measures stop the growth of tolerance violation. To preventive actions include weight loss, load and nutrition correction.
It is inappropriate to carry out the procedure if the repeated test showed elevated values above the diagnostic limit. It is also not recommended for patients who have an empty stomach with sugar levels> 11 mmol / l. Contraindicated after childbirth, surgery and heart attack.
The study takes place in several stages with a "load" for 2 hours. First, the blood is given on an empty stomach. Next, 70 g of glucose is taken, an test is given again in an hour. The next two intakes occur at intervals of 30 minutes. First, the primary indicator is determined, then its dynamics under the influence of sugar and the intensity of the decrease in concentration. After all the steps, the lab technician provides the results.
Glycated hemoglobin (GG) is a blood index that indicates the glucose content over a longer period (three months). It is conducted to assess the correctness of diabetes treatment for a certain period. The higher the level, the more glycemia was. With high rates, the doctor makes an adjustment to the treatment.
HS is in the blood of all people. Its level depends on the average glucose over a certain time. It shows the presence of hyperglycemia for 3 months. Normalization of HG on average occurs one month after reaching the normal level of sugar.
The indications for the purpose of the analysis are:
- diagnosis and screening of the disease;
- identification of the level of compensation of BD;
- additional research in identifying prediabetes;
- control treatment of patients with diabetes.
In accordance with the recommendations of doctors, testing should be done every 3 months. HS is used as an important indicator of the risk of formation of complications in diabetes.
Preparing for sugar testing
When passing the tolerance test, it is important to observe the recommendations:
- before testing, the usual diet is observed; the amount of carbohydrates per day is> 150 g;
- do not donate during menstruation;
- emotional rest;
- not to pass after operations and in inflammatory processes;
- adrenaline, antipsychotics, antidepressants, glucocorticoids, and contraceptives are excluded;
- gives on an empty stomach;
- The last meal is 10 hours before testing.
Research on glycated hemoglobin can be done at any time. The results do not change. The level of GG is not affected by physical exertion, time of day, food and medicine.
To conduct a simple clinical test for determining the concentration of glucose levels, you need to prepare:
- blood is given on an empty stomach;
- do not pass during menstruation;
- between meals and analysis, keep an interval of 12 hours;
- no smoking for 2 hours;
- normal diet with moderate carbohydrate content;
- emotional rest;
- do not use chewing gum before testing;
- exclude glucocorticoids, contraceptives, anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressants.
Rapid test is often used by people with diabetes to control glucose during the day. In these cases, special training is not required. When conducting a diagnostic test, the preparation will be the same as when a clinical sugar test is performed.
Before each type of study for a few days not to undergo ultrasound diagnostics and x-rays.
When conducting a blood test, proper preparation is important. It is she who guarantees the reliability of the results. And this, in turn, provides a correct diagnosis and timely treatment. Often patients ask, is it possible to drink water before analysis? Water does not change the composition of blood, its use is allowed. Another important recommendation is to exclude alcohol the day before the test.
For each study there are standards of the parameters studied:
Clinical analysis of sugar: children - 3.2-5.4, adults - 3.5-5.55.
Glucose tolerance test: in a healthy person, after a load, the amount of glucose is less than 7.81 mmol / l, in people with diabetes, more than 11 mmol / l. Values in the range of 7.81 - 11 mmol / l indicate a pre-diabetic state, a violation of tolerance.
One third of people with impaired tolerance subsequently observe its recovery. In 70% of the condition can be saved.
Glycosylated hemoglobin: indicators considered to be optimal are from 4 to 7% or 205-285.5 μmol / l. If the level of GG is above 8%, it is recommended to revise the treatment. If the indicator increased by 1%, the glucose level increased by 2 mmol / l, respectively.
When decoding the results, gender and age are taken into account. Taking certain medications may change the indicators. A list of drugs can provide a doctor. Before taking the test (2 weeks), you must stop taking medications that affect the result. During menopause, with hormonal disorders, during pregnancy there is a change in indicators.
With rates of <3.5 mmol / l clinical analysis, hypoglycemia is diagnosed. With sugar above 5.55 mmol / l - prediabetes or suspected diabetes. With sugar above 6.21 - diabetes mellitus.
For the rapid test, the decoding data is the same as in the clinical analysis. When conducting a research with a glucometer, the results may differ from laboratory analysis by 11%.
The cost of the study depends on the medical institution and laboratory. If necessary, re-analysis is recommended to conduct testing in one clinic.
The price of each sugar test (data from a private laboratory):
- clinical analysis (glucose) - 260 p .;
- glycated hemoglobin - 630 r .;
- glucose tolerance test - 765 r;
- pregnancy tolerance test - 825 r.
Glucose concentration can be checked independently and can be part of a biochemical study. Biochemical complex costs about 2000 p. depending on the list of studies. To carry out a rapid test at home, it is enough to purchase a blood glucose meter. Depending on the model and technical characteristics, its price will be from 900 to 2500 rubles. The price of consumables - 250-500r.
Video from Dr. Malysheva about three sugar tests:
Glucose is an important element of energy metabolism. For timely detection of pathology it is necessary to conduct periodic monitoring of the indicator. To confirm the disease with elevated sugars, detecting its latent form is assigned a glucose tolerance test. To assess the effectiveness of antidiabetic therapy, glycated hemoglobin is given. Timely laboratory testing will help avoid the consequences and, if necessary, start therapy on time.