The latent form of diabetes today is faced by a large number of people.
This type of impairment cannot be identified with the usual serum glucose test.
Therefore, a special analysis of hidden sugar or a study with a carbohydrate load has been developed.
What should be the level of sugar in a healthy person?
Each person in the blood contains a certain amount of sugar. The level of glucose concentration reflects the functioning of the pancreas and makes it possible to detect the presence of serious pathologies.
It is useful to know the standard glycemia for healthy people. The World Health Organization has approved the optimal values of serum sugar for adults and children.
Thus, in infants from the second birthday to the month glucose is at the level of 2.8-4.4 mmol / l. Starting from 30 days to 14 years, the glucose rises to 3.3-5.5 mmol / l. For adolescents and adults, a norm of 3.5–5.5 mmol / l was approved.
These values relate to laboratory studies of capillary blood. The result of the study of venous plasma will differ in a big way: the norm is up to 6.6 mmol / l.If the values are higher than the standard, then the person develops hyperglycemia, if below - hypoglycemia.
Even such a short-term condition is dangerous for the body. Chronic deviation from the optimal value has irreversible consequences.
With aging, the sensitivity of cells to the insulin hormone decreases. This results from the fact that the part of receptors perishes, body weight increases. This increases the risk of developing latent diabetes.
How to identify hidden diabetes?
The latent form is also called prediabetes. The danger of such a state of physicians found out relatively recently. For a long time it was believed that the threat to health and life is only obvious diabetes. The latent form is dangerous because it does not manifest pronounced symptoms.
A person does not even suspect that he has endocrinological disorders. Meanwhile, the disease progresses, leading to the development of complications of the vessels, kidneys, and heart. Launched pathology and its consequences are difficult to treat. Therefore, it is important to detect latent diabetes on time.
Suspected pathology can be on the following grounds:
- constant thirst;
- increased urge to empty the bladder;
- weight loss on the background of normal appetite (about 5 kg per month);
- erectile disfunction.
To identify latent diabetes, you need to make an appointment with an endocrinologist.
A specialist will designate a series of surveys:
- fasting sugar whey test with carbohydrate load;
- research of glycated hemoglobin;
- determination of antibodies to the pancreas, C-peptide.
Hidden sugar analysis: what is it?The analysis of hidden sugar is a laboratory diagnostic method, during which the latent form of diabetes is detected.
The essence of the procedure in the collection and study of serum at certain intervals before and after consuming a carbohydrate product.
Unlike overt diabetes, its latent form can be cured. Therefore, do not ignore the instructions of the doctor.
After all, the complications of endocrine pathology are serious: diabetes mellitus is the third cause of death.
Indications and contraindications for taking the test
The doctor prescribes a direction with a carbohydrate load test for those patients who have signs of diabetes (thirst, causeless sudden weight loss, increased daily diuresis, chronic fatigue).
Mandatory is such an analysis during pregnancy. Women in the position increases the load on all organs, including the pancreas.
Often, pregnant women develop gestational type of diabetes, which, without treatment, is able to move into the second form. In addition, if you do not control the parameter of sugar, a child with pathological changes can be born.
Assigned test for hidden glucose in such cases:
- sugar is found in the general analysis of urine;
- the patient in the family had diabetics;
- there is obesity;
- revealed hypertension;
- serum glycemia is exceeded.
The diagnostic procedure has a number of contraindications. It is forbidden to do the test for hidden sugar in such situations:
- the presence in the body of the inflammatory process;
- there is an endocrine pathology other than diabetes;
- increased activity of the thyroid gland;
- after surgery revealed obstruction of food in the stomach;
- there is a benign tumor;
- diagnosed with chronic bowel disease;
- liver dysfunction;
- therapy is carried out drugs that affect the concentration of glucose.
Any of these conditions are accompanied by insufficient production of insulin hormone.
Preparation for research and material sampling
It happens that the test for hidden glucose shows a false result. This happens if the patient is not prepared for a laboratory examination.
If the indicator of sugar exceeds the norm, and the person feels normal, or the value is optimal, but there are symptoms of diabetes, then you need to retake the analysis, observing certain rules.
Experts recommend preparing so:
- Do not eat in the morning before the examination. The last meal should be on the eve before 18:00. It is important that the food is light, does not contain excessive amounts of carbohydrates;
- stop taking medications that affect serum glucose concentration (unless medications are vital);
- Do not be nervous during the diagnosis;
- do not smoke, do not drink alcohol the day before the test;
- Do not be overloaded physically and emotionally on the eve of the examination.
The biological material is collected using the following algorithm:
- the nurse takes a portion of the serum from the patient's finger (vein);
- the patient is allowed to drink a glucose drink (75 grams of glucose, diluted in a small amount of water);
- an hour after the accepted cocktail, blood is taken a second time;
- An hour later, the health worker receives plasma a third time.
If the person is healthy and there is no predisposition to diabetes, then the results of the test will be within the standard.
If the glucose on an empty stomach is 3.5-5.5 mmol / l, an hour after the carbohydrate load is up to 8 mmol / l, after 120 minutes it is up to 5.5 mmol / l, this means that the pancreas is working normally, and there is no latent form of pathology.
If the fasting sugar is 4.5-6 mmol / l, and a couple of hours after drinking the glucose solution - 5.6-8 mmol / l, this indicates prediabetes. The apparent pathology is indicated by a glucose level above 11 mmol / l after the accepted sweet water.
Inflated figures may indicate:
- autonomic nervous system disorder;
- excessive activity of the thyroid gland, pituitary;
- gestational type diabetes;
- chronic or acute inflammation in the pancreas;
- dysfunction of the central nervous system;
- development of insulin hormone resistance.
The most common cause is latent diabetes. If the check showed a deviation from the standard, then it is necessary to start treatment more quickly. Patients with a latent form of the disease are prescribed therapy similar to the one that is selected for diabetics of the second type. Its difference in a more gentle effect on the body.
Usually endocrinologists recommend a special diet, prescribe medications that lower sugar, improve metabolism and support the work of the pancreas.
Criteria for diagnosis and diagnosis of “LADA-diabetes”
Hidden diabetes in the medical field has different names: lada-diabetes, latent, autoimmune, diabetes 1.5.
Diagnostic criteria are:
- the patient has characteristic symptoms;
- decrease in the sensitivity of cells to insulin hormone;
- high glucose level on an empty stomach.
It is not enough one analysis on the latent sugar for statement of the diagnosis. Doctors also study ESR levels during a general plasma study. The study of the composition of urine, serum biochemistry. The content of glucagon, leptin, proinsulin, pancreatic peptide, microalbumin is detected.
About the signs and symptoms of latent diabetes in the video:
The analysis for latent sugar allows you to diagnose diabetes at the initial stage of its development. Such a test can be called differently: with carbohydrate load, LADA, autoimmune, latent. It is carried out according to a specific algorithm. To obtain accurate data, the patient must follow a number of rules.
You should not refuse the type of laboratory diagnosis prescribed by a doctor. After all, the analysis with carbohydrate load allows you to detect malfunctions in the pancreas and to avoid diabetic complications.