Cholesterol is a highly controversial chemical component. By its nature, the organic compound appears to be a fatty alcohol. In the human body, 70% of cholesterol is produced (synthesizes the liver), and 30% comes with various foods - fatty meat, beef and lard fat, lard, etc.
Total cholesterol can be divided into good and bad compound. In the first case, the substance is actively involved in the production of protein components, contributes to the protection of cell membranes from negative factors.
Harmful cholesterol tends to accumulate in the body and settle on the inner wall of blood vessels, resulting in the formation of layers, narrowing gaps and leading to impaired blood flow.
To prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases, a balance between low and high density lipoproteins should be observed. With a high level of LDL nutrition correction is required, which means the exclusion of products that increase cholesterol in the blood.
Foods that increase cholesterol in the blood
The optimal value of cholesterol in patients who suffer from atherosclerosis and diabetes is less than 5.0 units. This figure should strive for all patients who want to prevent the formation of cholesterol plaques.
If a diabetic was diagnosed with atherosclerosis, with a concentration of a harmful substance in the blood of more than 5.0 units, then he is immediately recommended dietary intake and medication. In this situation, cope with one diet will not work.
In the daily diet of any person there are always products that increase cholesterol. First of all fatty pork, dark poultry meat, dairy products with a high percentage of fat content affects LDL. This food is saturated with animal fats.
Fats of plant origin are not characterized by the ability to increase the cholesterol content in the body, because they have a different chemical structure. They are replete with analogues of animal fats, in particular, sitosterol and polyunsaturated lipid acids; These components contribute to the normalization of fat metabolism, a positive effect on the functionality of the organism as a whole.
Sitosterol can bind with cholesterol molecules in the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in the formation of complexes of insoluble nature, which are poorly absorbed into the blood. Due to this, lipids of natural origin are able to reduce the amount of low-density lipoproteins, significantly increase HDL.
Note that the risk of atherosclerotic changes is caused not only by the presence of cholesterol in many products, but also by other moments. For example, what type of lipid acid prevails in a particular food - harmful, saturated or unsaturated. For example, beef tallow, in addition to a high concentration of cholesterol, has a lot of solid saturated lipids.
Definitely, this product is "problematic", because its systematic consumption leads to the development of atherosclerosis and related complications. According to modern statistics, in countries where beef dishes predominate, atherosclerosis of blood vessels occupies a leading position among the most common diseases.
All products containing cholesterol can be divided into three categories:
- "Red" category. It contains food that significantly increases the level of the harmful component in the blood. Products from this list are excluded from the menu completely or extremely limited;
- "Yellow" category - food, which tends to increase LDL, but to a lesser extent, because it includes components that normalize lipid metabolism in the body;
- The "green" category is foods that contain a lot of cholesterol. But, they have a positive effect on fat metabolism, so they are allowed for daily use.
The content of cholesterol in food can increase the level of LDL in the body, provoke the development of atherosclerosis. Increase the risk of concomitant diseases - diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, impaired blood flow, etc.
Sea fish - salmon, herring, mackerel, contains a lot of cholesterol, but is replete with polyunsaturated fatty acid. Thanks to this substance, lipid metabolism in the body is normalized.
"Red" list of products
Products that are on the "red" list, can significantly increase the content of harmful substances in the body, increase the symptoms of existing atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels. Therefore, they are advised to exclude all patients who have a history of cardiovascular disease, vascular disease of the brain.
The chicken yolk contains the maximum amount of cholesterol. 100 g of the product contains more than 1200 mg of a bad substance. One yolk - 200 mg. But the egg is an ambiguous product, because it also contains lecithin, a component aimed at reducing LDL.
Shrimps are not recommended for consumption. Foreign sources indicate that 100 g of the product contains up to 200 mg of LDL. In turn, domestic provide other information. About 65 mg.
The maximum cholesterol content is available in the following foods:
- Beef / pork brains (1000-2000 mg per 100 g).
- Kidney pigs (about 500 mg).
- Beef liver (400 mg).
- Boiled sausages (170 mg).
- Dark chicken meat (100 mg).
- High fat cheese (about 2500 mg).
- Dairy products 6% fat (23 mg).
- Egg powder (2000 mg).
You can add to the list of prohibited foods with heavy cream, butter substitutes, margarine, fast food, caviar, liver pate. For your information, the way of cooking is also important. Fried food is much more caloric, so it can aggravate LDL levels. And diabetics and is absolutely contraindicated.
Products from the "red" group can not be included in the menu for people who have an increased likelihood of atherosclerosis. The provoking factors that increase the likelihood of pathology include:
- Genetic predisposition;
- Obesity or overweight;
- Metabolic disorders;
- Impaired sugar absorption (diabetes);
- Smoking, alcohol abuse;
- Advanced age, etc.
In the presence of one or a pair of provoking factors, it is necessary to abandon the consumption of food from the "red" list. Even a small increase in LDL in such individuals can trigger atherosclerosis.
Products that slightly increase LDL
The "yellow" list includes those foods that include low-density lipoproteins. But their peculiarity is that they increase the LDL level minimally. The fact is that, in addition to the fat-like component, they also contain unsaturated fatty acid or other compounds useful for the body.
For example, lean meat, game, turkey fillet, or chicken is a source of fast-digesting proteins that contribute to the growth of high-density cholesterol, resulting in a decrease in LDL cholesterol.
Products from the "yellow" list have a lot of protein. According to research by the American Association for the fight against atherosclerotic changes, a small amount of protein is even more harmful to the human body than an increase in harmful cholesterol. Protein deficiency helps to reduce proteins in the blood, because proteins are the main building material for soft tissues and cells, as a result, this leads to the disruption of many processes in the human body.
Against the background of protein deficiency liver problems are observed. It begins to produce mainly low-density lipoproteins. They are saturated with lipids, but poor in protein, therefore they appear to be the most dangerous fraction of cholesterol. In turn, due to the lack of protein, HDL production decreases, which provokes significant lipid metabolism disorders and is one of the risk factors for atherosclerosis. In such cases, the likelihood of developing cirrhosis, biliary pancreatitis, and fatty hepatosis increases.
During the treatment of high LDL is recommended to eat foods from the "yellow" list. The menu includes:
- Roe deer, deer.
- Little rabbit
- Horse meat
- Chicken Breast.
- Cream 10-20% fat.
- Goat milk.
- Cottage cheese 20% fat.
- Chicken / quail eggs.
Of course, in the diet they are included in limited quantities. Especially against the background of diabetes; if the patient has obesity. Reasonable consumption of products from the "yellow" will benefit the body and fill the lack of protein.
Green Product List
The "green" list includes mackerel, lamb, sturgeon, carp, eel, sardines in oil, herring, trout, pike, crayfish. As well as homemade cheese, low-fat cottage cheese, low-fat kefir.
Fish products have a lot of cholesterol. It is impossible to calculate the exact amount, since everything depends on the type of product. Fish cholesterol benefits the body because it has a rich chemical composition.
Fish does not increase the level of LDL, while strengthening the walls of blood vessels, which is extremely important for diabetics. It also reduces the size of atherosclerotic plaques, leading to their gradual dissolution.
The inclusion of boiled / baked fish in the menu reduces the risk of pathologies of the heart and blood vessels, cerebral diseases by 10%, as well as stroke / heart attack - dangerous complications of atherosclerosis.
Other foods that affect blood cholesterol
Atherosclerotic plaque is a fatty clot that tightly settles on the inner wall of the vessel. It narrows the lumen of it, which leads to impaired blood circulation - this affects the state of health and condition. If the vessel is completely blocked, the patient is likely to die.
The increased risk of complications is associated with nutrition and human disease. Statistics notes: almost all diabetics suffer from high cholesterol in the blood, which is associated with the peculiarities of the underlying disease.
The norm of cholesterol for a healthy person, which it can get from food, varies from 300 to 400 mg per day. For diabetics, even with normal LDL, the rate is much less - up to 200 mg.
There are products that do not have cholesterol in the composition, but leading to an increase in low-density lipoprotein:
- Sweet soda is a product that contains a lot of fast-absorbing carbohydrates and sugar, which negatively affects the metabolic processes and carbohydrate metabolism. The menu of diabetics is banned;
- Confectionery products - cake, cake, candy, bun, pies, etc. Such sweets often contain components that increase cholesterol - margarine, butter, fatty cream. The consumption of such products is the risk of obesity, impaired metabolic processes, jumps in blood sugar in diabetes. In turn, these factors lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques;
- Alcohol is characterized by high calorie, "empty" energy, damages blood vessels. For any type of diabetes, no more than 50 grams of dry red wine is allowed;
- Although coffee is not a product of animal nature, it does increase cholesterol. It contains kafestol - a component that acts in the intestine. It helps to enhance the absorption of LDL into the bloodstream. And if you add milk to the drink, then HDL also begins to decline.
In conclusion: the menu of diabetics and those at high risk of atherosclerosis should be varied and balanced. Be sure to eat a lot of fruits, vegetables, follow the drinking regime. Do not give up meat - protein is vital body. If you refuse food from the "red" list, you can improve lipid metabolism and reduce LDL.
In which foods a lot of cholesterol is described in the video in this article.