The traditional means of reducing sugar after a meal are human short-acting insulin. One of the most popular drugs, Actrapid, has been struggling with diabetes for more than three decades. Over the years, he confirmed his excellent quality and saved millions of lives.
Currently, there are already new, improved insulins that provide normal glycemia and are free from the disadvantages of their predecessors. Despite this, Actrapid does not lose its position and is actively used in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Brief instructions for use
Actrapid is one of the first insulin obtained by genetic engineering. It was first produced back in 1982 by the pharmaceutical concern Novo Nordisk, one of the largest developers of diabetes drugs in the world. At that time, diabetics had to be content with animal insulin, which had a low degree of purification and high allergenicity.
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Actrapid is produced with the help of modified bacteria, the finished product repeats the insulin produced in humans. The production technology allows to achieve a good hypoglycemic action and high purity of the solution, which reduced the risk of allergies and inflammation at the site of the drug administration. Radar (register of drugs registered with the Ministry of Health) indicates that the drug can be manufactured and packaged in Denmark, France and Brazil. Output control is made only in Europe, so there is no doubt about the quality of the drug.
Brief information about Actrapid from the instructions for use, which is worth familiarizing each diabetic:
|Act||Stimulates the transfer of sugar from the blood to the tissue, enhances the synthesis of glycogen, protein and fat.|
|Contraindications||Individual reactions of the immune system, not disappearing for 2 weeks from the beginning of insulin administration or proceeding in a severe form:|
Actrapid not allowed in insulin pumps, as it is prone to crystallization and can clog the infusion system.
|Dose selection||Actrapid is needed to compensate for glucose that enters the bloodstream after eating. The dosage of the drug is calculated based on the amount of carbohydrates contained in the food. You can use the system of bread units. The amount of insulin at 1XE is determined by calculation, individual coefficients are adjusted according to the results of the measurement of glycemia. The dosage is considered correct if the blood sugar returned to its original level after the end of the action of insulin Aktrapid.|
If you exceed the dosage, hypoglycemia occurs, which can lead to coma in a matter of hours. Frequent light drops of sugar cause irreversible damage to nerve fibers, "erase" the symptoms of hypoglycemia, which makes them difficult to detect.
In case of violation of the injection technique of Actrapid insulin or due to the individual characteristics of the subcutaneous tissue, lipodystrophy is possible, their frequency of occurrence is less than 1%.
According to the instructions, during the transition to insulin and the rapid fall of sugar, there may be temporary side reactions that disappear on their own: blurred vision, swelling, neuropathy.
|Combination with other medicines|
Insulin is a fragile drug, in one syringe it can only be mixed with saline and medium-acting insulin, better than the same manufacturer (Protafan). Dilution of insulin Aktrapid is necessary for patients with diabetes with high sensitivity to the hormone, for example, young children. The combination with drugs of average action is used for type 2 diabetes, usually in the elderly.
The simultaneous intake of certain drugs may affect the activity of insulin. Hormonal and diuretic agents can weaken the effect of actrapid, modern pressure drugs and even tetracycline with aspirin can increase it. Patients on insulin therapy should carefully study the section "Interaction" in the instructions of all drugs that they plan to use. If it turns out that the drug may affect the action of insulin, Actrapid dosage will have to be temporarily changed.
|Pregnancy and HB||During pregnancy and breastfeeding Actrapid is allowed. The drug does not penetrate the placenta, and therefore can not affect the development of the fetus. It enters breast milk in microscopic quantities, after which it is broken down in the digestive tract of the baby.|
|Insulin release form Aktrapid||Radar includes 3 forms of the drug allowed for sale in Russia:|
In practice, only bottles (Actrapid NM) and cartridges (Actrapid NM Penfill) are found on the market. All forms contain the same drug with a concentration of 100 units of insulin per milliliter of solution.
|Storage||After opening, insulin is stored for 6 weeks in a dark place, the allowed temperature is up to 30 ° C. Spare packaging must be kept in the refrigerator. The freezing of insulin Aktrapid is not allowed. See here >> general rules for storage of insulin.|
Actrapid is annually included in the VED list, so diabetics can get it for free, with a prescription from the attending physician.
Actrapid NM refers to short (list of short insulins), but not ultrashort drugs. It begins to act after 30 minutes, so enter it in advance. This insulin manages to “catch” glucose from low-GI food (for example, buckwheat with meat) and in a timely manner to remove it from the blood. With fast carbohydrates (for example, tea with a cake) Actrapid is not able to fight quickly, so after eating hyperglycemia will inevitably occur, which will then gradually decrease. Such sugar jumps not only worsen the health of the patient, but also contribute to the progress of complications of diabetes. To slow the growth of glycemia, each meal with insulin using Actrapid must contain fiber, protein or fat.
Duration of action
Actrapid works up to 8 hours. The first 5 hours is the main action, then the residual manifestations. If you inject insulin often, the effect of two doses will be superimposed on one another. It is almost impossible to calculate the desired dosage of the drug, which increases the risk of hypoglycemia. To successfully use the drug, meals and insulin injections need to be distributed every 5 hours.
The drug has a peak action after 1.5-3.5 hours. By this time, most of the food has time to digest, so hypoglycemia occurs. To avoid it, you need a snack on 1-2 XE. In total, with diabetes mellitus per day, there are 3 main and 3 additional meals. Insulin Actrapid is administered only before the main ones, but its dosage is calculated taking into account snacking.
Bottles with Aktrapid NM can only be used with insulin syringes labeled U-100. Cartridges - with syringes and syringe pens: NovoPen 4 (dosage step 1 unit), NovoPen Echo (0.5 unit).
In order for insulin in diabetes to work properly, you need to study the injection technique in the instructions for use and follow it exactly. Most often Actrapid is pricked in the fold on the abdomen; the syringe is held at an angle to the skin. After insertion, the needle is not removed for several seconds to prevent leakage of the solution. Insulin should be at room temperature. Before the introduction, you must check the expiration date and appearance of the drug.
A bottle with flakes, sediment or crystals inside is forbidden to use.
Comparison with other insulins
Despite the fact that the molecule Aktrapida is identical to human insulin, their action is different. This is due to the subcutaneous administration of the drug. He needs time to leave the fatty tissue and reach the bloodstream. In addition, insulin is prone to the formation of complex structures in the tissues, which also prevents the rapid decline of sugar.
More modern ultrashort insulins — Humalog, NovoRapid, and Apidra — lack these deficiencies. They start to work earlier, therefore they manage to remove even fast carbohydrates. The time of their action is reduced, and the peak is absent, so meals can be more frequent, and snacks are not needed. According to research, ultrashort drugs provide better glycemic control than Actrapid.
The use of insulin Actrapid in diabetes mellitus may be justified:
- in patients who adhere to low-carb diets, especially with type 2 diabetes;
- in babies who eat every 3 hours.
How much is the drug? The undoubted advantages of this insulin include its low price: 1 unit of Actrapid costs from 40 kopecks (400 rubles per 10 ml bottle), ultrashort hormone is 3 times more expensive.
Human insulin preparations with a similar molecular structure and similar properties:
|Actrapid NM||Denmark, Novo Nordisk||905||405|
|Biosulin R||Russia, Pharmstandard||1115||520|
|Insuman Rapid GT||Belarus, Monoinsulin CR||-||330|
|Humulin Regulyar||USA, Eli Lily||1150||600|
The transition from one insulin to another needs to be done only for medical reasons, since the compensation of diabetes mellitus inevitably worsens during the selection of the dosage.
It will be in the subject.: how to properly calculate the dose of insulin for injection