The diagnosis of lipodystrophy is made in the event that a person is completely absent fat layer. At the same time, therapeutic diets recommended by the doctor do not give results, the level of fat does not increase even after eating high-calorie foods. When the disease does not matter the age of the person and his gender, however, men and women may differ symptoms.
It does not matter what the patient eats, the amount of carbohydrates, fats and protein. He also does not gain weight in the complete absence of emotional experiences, physical activity, active sports.
Lipodystrophy is a dangerous pathology, it gives serious consequences and complications, since lipids take part in important metabolic processes in the human body, they are vital.
The principal difference from conventional dystrophy is that there is no loss of muscle mass. Visually, a person does not look exhausted, but without treatment, violations of the internal organs and systems will begin.
Types of lipodystrophy, their features
It is customary to single out several forms of this disease. Congenital generalized lipodystrophy is extremely rarely diagnosed; in a child, fat is present only on the head and the soles of the feet. A little more common is the hereditary local form of pathology; in such patients, fat deposits are found on the neck, face, and chest. The disease occurs in both men and women of any age.
Acquired lipodystrophy is rarely detected, it affects only women. Distinctive features - the complete absence of body fat, it begins to disappear during puberty. Almost always, patients suffer from kidney complications.
Another thing is generalized lipodystrophy, it occurs as a result of transferred infectious diseases: hepatitis, pneumonia, diphtheria. When in the body there is a dysfunction of the hepatocytes responsible for metabolic processes, the breakdown of fats, a person begins hepatic lipodystrophy.
It is especially necessary to distinguish lipodystrophy in diabetes mellitus (insulin lipodystrophy), it occurs due to frequent injections of insulin. The place where the injection is most often done over time:
In the pathogenesis of this type of lipodystrophy, special attention is paid to the prolonged traumatization of the tissue, branching of the peripheral nerves due to physico-chemical, mechanical and thermal stimuli. It is also erroneous to exclude the role of a local allergic reaction to the introduction of a hormone.
Doctors believe that the body of some patients respond to injections after a couple of doses of insulin. However, in the majority of cases, this form of lipodystrophy develops only 10-15 years after the start of the course of treatment. The depth of lesions can vary from a couple of millimeters to the complete absence of subcutaneous tissue in large areas of the body.
To date, not yet established all the factors that can affect the change in the amount of fat. The most likely causes are metabolic disturbances, including those of a hormonal nature, addiction (smoking, alcohol abuse), giardiasis, infectious hepatitis, overeating fatty and sweet foods, and unhealthy diets.
An equally obvious cause of lipodystrophy is the intoxication of the body, which include:
- poisoning in hazardous industries;
- long stay in areas with poor ecology.
When the doctor has diagnosed diabetic lipodystrophy, the causes should usually be sought in frequent insulin injections.
After the initial examination, the doctor recommends to undergo laboratory tests, this is a general analysis of urine and blood, an analysis of the level of glucose in the body. After lipodystrophy will be associated with existing pathologies, begin a course of therapy.
If a person is sick with diabetes, in no case should the presence of lipodystrophy be ignored, since the atrophied tissues do not allow insulin to be absorbed after the injection. As a result, it becomes problematic to adequately calculate the dosage of the hormone that should actually enter the patient's body.
Especially dangerous is lipoatrophic diabetes, a condition in which diabetic tissues completely stop responding to insulin. This complication occurs in approximately 25% of diabetics. Atrophic changes in the skin are no less dangerous. In the places of injections, dense fat cells accumulate, when this zone is injured or an infection penetrates, the probability of trophic ulcers, diabetic foot increases, the appearance of a complication - gangrene in diabetes increases.
When lipodystrophy is complicated by the hepatic form of the disease, it is additionally indicated to carry out treatment with drugs:
- hepatoprotectors (Essliver, Essentiale);
- to stimulate the metabolism (Methionine, Methyluracil);
- vitamin complexes.
If there are complaints of colic, the doctor prescribes antispasmodics. In extremely severe cases, do not do without hormone therapy.
Usually, the restoration of the liver takes at least 6 months, then at least 2 years in a row it will be necessary to pay special attention to nutrition, to take drugs to maintain the body.
Sometimes treatment begins with a change in the type of insulin, and multicomponent or human insulin will be the most effective. The injection is made on the border of healthy tissue and lipodystrophy. If you follow the technique of injection, apply suitable insulins with a neutral pH, lipodystrophy does not develop.
To block the source of irritation and normalization of the trophic, an insulin – Novocain mixture is used. The hormone is mixed with a 0.5% solution of Novocain, cut off with a mixture of lipodistrophies.
It is extremely difficult, almost impossible to get rid of such consequences.
The only way to protect yourself is timely prevention.
In order not to develop lipodystrophy in diabetes mellitus, it is necessary to constantly monitor your diet, exclude consumption:
- fast carbs;
- fatty foods.
It is recommended to undergo several courses of ultrasound, inductometry. The first time you need to spend 10-15 sessions, the treatment is carried out every other day. After each course, a break of 2-3 months is made and another 15 sessions take place.
Ultrasound is able to penetrate the tissue by 10 centimeters, vibrations help to improve the skin condition, stimulate blood flow. During the procedure, hydrocortisone ointment is applied to the skin, it helps to restore the affected tissues. As a rule, the proposed measures help to prevent the manifestations of lipodystrophy for a period of six months to two years.
It is useful for the prevention of alternate injection sites, the introduction of insulin is made exclusively warmed to body temperature drug. It is also recommended to treat the injection sites with alcohol, wipe them with a sterile napkin after the injection, or wait for the alcohol to evaporate.
Insulin is injected under the skin deeply and slowly, it is absolutely forbidden to use old needles, they injure the skin even more.