Questions

How type 1 and type 2 diabetes is transmitted, prevention of hereditary diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a serious chronic disease that requires expensive treatment and complete restructuring of the patient's life under the conditions dictated by the disease. Diabetes cannot be cured, patients throughout their lives are forced to take life-saving drugs to maintain their health.

Therefore, people suffering from this disease are interested in the question: is diabetes mellitus inherited? After all, no one wants his children to get sick. To understand the issue, consider the causes and types of this disease.

Causes of disease

Diabetes mellitus arises as a result of the inability of the pancreas to produce the hormone insulin or its insufficient production. Insulin is needed to deliver glucose to the body's tissue cells, which is released into the blood when food is broken down.

Without insulin, the body loses glucose, loses nutrition, loses weight and weakens.

No one is immune from the disease. But, like any disease, diabetes does not occur without a cause.

You can get sick with the confluence of the following circumstances:

  1. Hereditary predisposition;
  2. Diseases of the pancreas;
  3. Overweight, obesity;
  4. Alcohol abuse;
  5. Sedentary lifestyle, hypodynamia;
  6. The transfer of infectious and viral diseases leading to a decrease in immunity;
  7. Constant stress and adrenaline rush;
  8. Acceptance of drugs that cause diabetogenic effect.

Types of diabetes

Two types of diabetes are most common:

  • Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM 1). The pancreas practically does not produce insulin or it does not produce enough for the full functioning of the body. The patient is given insulin for life, without injections, he may die. Diabetes 1 is approximately 15% of all cases.
  • Insulin-independent diabetes mellitus (diabetes mellitus 2). The muscle cells of the patients are not able to absorb insulin, which is normally produced by the body normally. In patients with diabetes, 2 patients are prescribed a diet and drugs that stimulate insulin absorption.

Diabetes and heredity

There is an opinion that diabetes mellitus 1 is a hereditary disease, and diabetes mellitus 2 is acquired in 90% of cases. But data from recent studies have shown that patients with diabetes mellitus in previous generations also have sick relatives.

Yes, heredity is a major factor. Scientists have found that the risk of the disease is transmitted with genes. But it will be wrong to say that diabetes is inherited. Only predisposition is inherited. Whether a person becomes ill depends on a number of related factors: lifestyle, nutrition, the presence of stress and other diseases.

What are the risks

Heredity makes up 60-80% of the overall probability of getting sick. If a person in previous generations has relatives of patients with diabetes, he is exposed to risks identified on the basis of regularities:

  1. The insulin-dependent form is more common in men than in women.
  2. The insulin-dependent form can be transmitted through the generation. If grandparents had diabetes and their children are healthy, their grandchildren can get sick.
  3. The likelihood of a child of diabetes mellitus 1 in case of illness in one of the parents is 5%. If the mother is sick, the risk of the child’s illness is 3%, if the father is 9%, both parents are 21%.
  4. With age, the risk of getting diabetes mellitus 1 decreases. If a person has a strong predisposition, more often he begins to get sick from childhood.
  5. The probability of illness of children in the presence of diabetes mellitus 2 in one of the parents reaches 80%. When both parents are sick, the likelihood is even higher. Excess weight and poor lifestyle accelerate the occurrence of the disease.
  6. When assessing risks, not only close relatives are taken into account. The more people with diabetes in a person’s family, the greater the risk of getting sick, provided that all relatives have the same type of diabetes.
  7. A dangerous period is pregnancy. With a high predisposition at the twentieth week, the mother may increase blood sugar levels. After childbirth, the symptom either disappears without a trace, or develops into diabetes mellitus of any type.
  8. If one of the identical twins has symptoms, the second child will become sick in 50% of cases with type 1 diabetes and up to 70% of cases with type 2 diabetes.

The question arises: is it possible to prevent the spread of the disease? Unfortunately, although scientists have figured out how to inherit diabetes, they cannot influence this process.

Prevention

If your relatives suffer from this disease, and you are at risk, do not despair. This does not mean that you will inherit diabetes. Proper lifestyle helps to delay the disease or even to avoid it.

Follow the recommendations below:

  • Regular examinations. It is recommended to be checked at least once a year. Diabetes can occur in latent form for years and decades. Therefore, it is necessary not only to investigate fasting glycemia, but also to undergo the glucose tolerance test. The sooner you find signs of disease and take action, the easier it will be to proceed. This is especially true of young children. Observation and control should be carried out from birth.
  • Weight tracking. As practice shows, 80% of patients with diabetes mellitus 2 are fat people. Overweight is one of the factors causing the disease, so you need to avoid it. Track weight will help you proper nutrition and exercise.
  • Proper nutrition. Meals should be regular. Limit the consumption of sweet and flour. Eliminate the use of alcoholic beverages.
  • Physical exercise. A sedentary lifestyle is one of the concomitant factors for the development of diabetes. Enter regular exercise routine into your daily routine. Very useful walks in the fresh air. At least half an hour a day, walk fast.

Try not to overwork, observe the regime, avoid stress. This will negate the factors that trigger the disease.

Even if there is a risk of hereditary diabetes, there is a chance to avoid the disease if you follow the lifestyle recommended by doctors.

Watch the video: Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Children (September 2019).