Diet for diabetes is the main means of treatment (control) of the disease, prevention of acute and chronic complications. From what diet you choose, the results depend most of all. You need to decide what foods you will eat, and which ones you exclude, how many times a day and at what time to eat, and also whether you will count and limit calories. Dosage tablets and insulin adapt to the chosen diet.
Diet for diabetes: what patients need to know
Objectives for the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes:
- maintain blood sugar within acceptable limits;
- reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, other acute and chronic complications;
- have consistent well-being, resistance to colds and other infections;
- lose weight if the patient is overweight.
Physical activity, medications and insulin shots play an important role in achieving the goals listed above. But still diet - in the first place. The Diabet-Med.Com website works to promote a low-carbohydrate diet among Russian-speaking patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It really helps, in contrast to the common diet number 9. The information of the site is based on the materials of the famous American doctor Richard Bernstein, who himself has been living with severe type 1 diabetes for over 65 years. He still, over the age of 80, feels well, exercises, continues to work with patients and publish articles.
Examine the lists of permitted and prohibited foods for a low-carb diet. They can be printed, hanged on the refrigerator, carried with them.
The low-carbohydrate diet for diabetes mellitus is compared in detail with the “balanced”, low-calorie diet No. 9. Low-carbohydrate diet allows you to maintain a stable normal blood sugar, like in healthy people, not higher than 5.5 mmol / l after each meal, as well as in the morning on an empty stomach. It protects diabetics from the development of vascular complications. Glucometer will show that sugar is normal, after 2-3 days. In diabetes type 1 and 2, the dosage of insulin is reduced by 2-7 times. Patients with type 2 diabetes can completely abandon the harmful pills.
|There is no special diet for diabetics. You can and should eat everything a little.||You can eat any food only if you are not worried about the risk of developing diabetes complications. If you want to live long and with good health - you need to limit the consumption of carbohydrates. There is no other way to avoid sugar jumps after a meal.|
|You can eat anything, and then extinguish sugar jumps with pills or insulin||Neither sugar pills nor injections of large doses of insulin help to avoid an increase in sugar after a meal, as well as its jumps. Patients develop long-term vascular complications of diabetes. The higher the dosage of tablets and insulin, the more often hypoglycemia happens - too low blood sugar. This is an acute, deadly complication.|
|Diabetics can consume sugar in small quantities.||Table sugar, including brown, is among the foods banned for low-carbohydrate diets. All types of food containing it are also prohibited. Even a few grams of sugar significantly increase blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. Check it yourself with a meter and make sure of it.|
|Bread, potatoes, cereals, pasta - suitable and even necessary products||Bread, potatoes, cereals, pasta and any other foods overloaded with carbohydrates, quickly and significantly increase the level of glucose in the blood. Stay away from all products that are on the list of banned for low-carb diets for type 1 and type 2 diabetes.|
|Complex carbohydrates are beneficial and simple carbohydrates||The so-called complex carbohydrates - no less harmful than simple. Because they quickly and significantly increase blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Measure your sugar after a meal with a glucometer and see for yourself. In drawing up the menu, do not rely on the glycemic index. Keep on hand the list of allowed and prohibited products referenced above and use it.|
|Fatty meat, chicken eggs, butter - bad for the heart||Studies conducted after 2010 have shown that consuming saturated animal fats does not actually increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Easy eat fatty meat, chicken eggs, hard cheese, butter. In Sweden, official recommendations already confirm that animal fats are safe for the heart. Next in line are the rest of the Western countries, and then the Russian-speaking ones.|
|You can eat margarine, because it does not contain cholesterol||Margarine contains trans fats, which are really dangerous for the heart, unlike natural fats of animal origin. Other products containing trans fats are mayonnaise, chips, factory baked goods, any semi-finished products. Discard them. Prepare yourself healthy food from natural products, without trans fats and chemical additives.|
|Cellulose and fats inhibit the increase in sugar after eating||If you eat foods overloaded with carbohydrates, then fiber and fats actually inhibit the increase in sugar after a meal. But this effect is, unfortunately, insignificant. It does not save from the jump in blood glucose and the development of vascular complications of diabetes. To use the products included in the list of prohibited, can not under any circumstances.|
|Fruits are useful||Patients with diabetes type 2 and type 1 fruits, as well as carrots and beets, do more harm than good. Consuming these foods increases sugar and stimulates weight gain. Give up fruits and berries - live longer and healthier. Get vitamins and trace elements from vegetables and greens allowed for low-carbohydrate diets.|
|Fructose is beneficial, does not increase blood sugar||Fructose lowers the sensitivity of tissues to insulin, forms poisonous "end products of glycation", increases the level of "bad" cholesterol in the blood, as well as uric acid. It stimulates gout and the formation of kidney stones. Perhaps it violates the regulation of appetite in the brain, slowing the appearance of a feeling of fullness. Do not eat fruit and “diabetic” products. They do more harm than good.|
|Food protein causes kidney failure||Renal failure in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes causes elevated blood sugar, not dietary protein. In US states where beef is grown, people eat much more protein than in states where beef is less available. However, the prevalence of renal failure is the same. Normalize your sugar with a low-carb diet to slow down the development of kidney failure. Read more about the article "Diet for the kidneys in diabetes."|
|You need to eat special diabetic foods.||Diabetic products contain fructose as a sweetener instead of glucose. Why fructose is harmful is described above. Also, these products usually contain a lot of flour. Stay away from any “diabetic” products. They are expensive and unhealthy. Also, patients with type 2 diabetes should not consume any sweeteners. Because sugar substitutes, even those that do not contain calories, do not give to lose weight.|
|Children need carbohydrates for development.||Carbohydrates are not necessary, unlike proteins and fats. If a child with type 1 diabetes has a balanced diet, then he will have growth and development retardation due to high sugar. And the insulin pump does not help. To ensure the normal development of such a child, it must be transferred to a strict low-carbohydrate diet. Dozens of children with type 1 diabetes are already living and developing normally, thanks to a low-carbohydrate diet, in Western and Russian-speaking countries. Many even manage to jump off insulin.|
|Low carbohydrate diet leads to hypoglycemia||A low-carbohydrate diet can actually lead to hypoglycemia, if you do not lower the dosage of tablets and insulin. Tablets for type 2 diabetes that can cause hypoglycemia should be completely excluded. Read more about "Diabetes Medication." How to choose the appropriate dosage of insulin - study the materials in the heading "Insulin". Insulin dosages are reduced by 2-7 times, so the risk of hypoglycemia is reduced.|
Diet number 9 with diabetes
Diet number 9, (also called table number 9) is a popular diet in Russian-speaking countries, which is prescribed to patients with diabetes mellitus and moderate to severe, with a moderate excess of body weight. Diet number 9 - balanced. In keeping with it, patients consume 300-350 grams of carbohydrates per day, 90-100 grams of proteins, and 75-80 grams of fat, of which at least 30% are vegetable, unsaturated.
The essence of the diet is to limit the calorie intake, reduce the consumption of animal fats and "simple" carbohydrates. Sugar and sweets are excluded. They are replaced by xylitol, sorbitol, or other sweeteners. Patients are recommended to eat more vitamins and fiber. Specific recommended foods are cottage cheese, lean fish, vegetables, fruits, wholemeal bread, whole grain cereals.
Most of the foods that diet No. 9 recommends increase blood sugar in diabetic patients and therefore are harmful. In people with metabolic syndrome or prediabetes, this diet causes a chronic feeling of hunger. The body also slows down the metabolism in response to a calorie restriction diet. Disruption from the diet is almost inevitable. After it, all the kilograms that have been removed, quickly returned, so even with the addition. The Diabet-Med.Com website recommends a low-carb diet instead of the No. 9 diet for patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes.
How many calories per day to consume
The need to limit calories, chronic hunger - these are the reasons why people with diabetes often lose their diet. To normalize blood sugar with a low-carbohydrate diet, you do not need to count calories. Moreover, trying to limit caloric intake is harmful. This may worsen the course of the disease. Try not to overeat, especially at night, but eat your fill, do not starve.
A low-carb diet will require you to give up many foods that you used to love. But still it is nourishing and tasty. Patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes adhere to it more readily than a low-calorie "fat-free" diet. In 2012, the results of a comparative study of a low-calorie and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet were published. The study involved 363 patients from Dubai, 102 of whom had type 2 diabetes. In patients who followed a nourishing low-carb diet, breakdowns were 1.5–2 times less.
What products are healthy and which are harmful
Basic information - lists of allowed and prohibited foods for low-carb diets. The diet for diabetics is more stringent than similar variants of the low-carbohydrate diet - the Kremlin, Atkins and Ducane diet. But diabetes is a more serious disease than obesity or metabolic syndrome. It can be well controlled only if you completely abandon the prohibited products, without making exceptions for holidays, in a restaurant, for visiting and traveling.
The products listed below are HARMFUL for diabetic patients:
- brown risk;
- whole grain pasta;
- whole grain bread;
- oatmeal and any other cereal flakes;
- blueberries and any other berries;
- Jerusalem artichoke.
All of these products are traditionally considered healthy and healthy. In fact, they are overloaded with carbohydrates, increase blood sugar and therefore do more harm than good. Do not eat them.
Herbal teas for diabetes are useless at best. Real potent drugs are often added to clandestine tablets that increase male potency, without warning buyers. This causes jumps in blood pressure and other side effects in men. Also, herbal teas and dietary supplements for diabetes can illegally add some substances that lower blood sugar. In this case, these teas will deplete the pancreas, causing hypoglycemia.
Questions and answers about foods for low-carb diets- Is it possible to eat soy products? - Check with…
Posted by Sergey Kuschenko on December 7, 2015
How to eat if you are obese
A low-carbohydrate diet is guaranteed to lower blood sugar, even if the patient cannot lose weight. This confirms the practice, as well as the results of several small studies. See for example an article published in the English magazine "Nutrition and Metabolism" in 2006. In patients with type 2 diabetes, daily carbohydrate intake was limited to 20% of the total caloric intake. As a result, their glycated hemoglobin decreased from 9.8% to 7.6% without a decrease in body weight. The Diabet-Med.Com website promotes a more rigorous low-carb diet. It makes it possible to keep blood sugar normal, like in healthy people, and also in many patients to lose weight.
You should not artificially limit the fat in the diet of a patient with diabetes. Calmly eat protein foods that are high in fat. This is red meat, butter, hard cheese, chicken eggs. Fats that a person eats, do not increase his body weight and do not even slow down weight loss. They also do not require an increase in insulin dosages.
Dr. Bernstein conducted such an experiment. He had 8 type 1 diabetics who needed to get better. He gave them to drink olive oil every day for 4 weeks, in addition to regular meals. None of the patients did not gain weight. After that, at the insistence of Dr. Bernstein, patients began to eat more protein, continuing to limit their consumption of carbohydrates. As a result, they have increased muscle mass.
A low-carb diet improves blood sugar in all diabetic patients, although it doesn’t help everyone to lose weight. Nevertheless, the best means for losing weight does not exist. Low-calorie and "fat-free" diet work much worse. An article confirming this has been published in the journal Diabetic Medicine in December 2007. The study involved 26 patients, half of whom suffered from type 2 diabetes, and the second half - metabolic syndrome. After 3 months, the average weight loss in the low-carbohydrate diet group was 6.9 kg, and in the low-calorie diet group, only 2.1 kg.
Diet for Type 2 Diabetes
The cause of type 2 diabetes is a degraded insulin sensitivity of the tissues - insulin resistance. Patients usually do not have low, but elevated levels of insulin in the blood. In such a situation, following a balanced diet and making insulin shots is only aggravating the problem. A low-carbohydrate diet in diabetes mellitus type 2 allows you to normalize glucose and insulin in the blood, to take control of insulin resistance.
A low-calorie diet for type 2 diabetes does not help, because patients do not want to endure chronic hunger even under the fear of complications. Sooner or later, almost everything is disrupted from the diet. It has devastating health effects. Also, the body in response to calorie restriction slows down the metabolism. Lose weight is almost impossible. In addition to chronic hunger, the patient feels lethargy, a desire to hibernate.
A low-carb diet is a lifeline for people with type 2 diabetes. It is guaranteed to normalize blood sugar, even if you can not lose weight. You can refuse harmful pills.Most patients do not need insulin shots. And for those who need them, dosages are significantly reduced. Measure your sugar with a glucometer more often - and quickly make sure that the low-carb diet works, and diet number 9 does not. The same will confirm the improvement of your well-being. Results of blood tests for cholesterol and triglycerides are normalized.
Diet for type 1 diabetes
Official medicine recommends that patients with type 1 diabetes eat in the same way as healthy people. This is bad advice that made disabled people and killed tens of thousands of people. To beat off high sugar after a meal, doctors prescribe large doses of insulin, but they do not help very well. Since you learned about the low-carb diet, you have a chance to avoid disability and early death. Type 1 diabetes is a more severe disease than type 2 diabetes. But the diet that is recommended officially is less strict.
In patients with type 1 diabetes, large amounts of dietary carbohydrates and high insulin dosages are unpredictable. They have different effects on blood sugar on different days. The difference in the action of insulin can be 2-4 times. Because of this, blood sugar jumps, causing poor health and the development of complications. Patients with type 2 diabetes are easier because they maintain their insulin production. It smoothes out fluctuations, so their blood sugar is more stable.
However, for patients with type 1 diabetes, there is a way to keep stably normal sugar. It consists in following a strict low-carbohydrate diet. The less carbohydrates you eat, the less insulin you need to prick. Small dosages of insulin (not exceeding 7 units in a single shot) are predictable. With the help of a low-carb diet and an accurate calculation of insulin dosages, you can ensure that sugar after a meal is no higher than 5.5 mmol / l. It can also be kept steadily normal during the day and in the morning on an empty stomach. This prevents the development of complications, makes it possible to live fully.
The following is a sample of a type 1 nutritional diary for a patient with type 1 diabetes who switched to a low-carb diet a few days ago.
Diet for Type 1 Diabetes: Food Diary
The patient has been on insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes for several years. All this time, the patient kept a "balanced" diet and injected high doses of insulin. As a result, sugar was high, and vascular complications of diabetes began to manifest. The patient has accumulated about 8 kg of fat in the waist. This lowers its insulin sensitivity, which makes it necessary to prick high doses of Lantus, as well as powerful insulin Humalog per meal.
The dose of prolonged insulin Lantus is not yet precisely selected. Because of this, at 3 am hypoglycemia occurred, which was stopped by taking glucose tablets. Only 2 grams of carbohydrates was enough to raise sugar to normal.
The diary shows that sugar is almost normal for 24 hours thanks to the low-carbohydrate diet and the optimization of insulin dosages. By the time shown in the picture, insulin dosage has already decreased by 2 times. Subsequently, the patient increased physical activity. Because of this, it was possible to further reduce the dosage of insulin without increasing the indicators of sugar. The less insulin in the blood, the easier it is to lose excess weight. The extra pounds are gradually gone. Currently, the patient leads a healthy lifestyle, keeps a consistently normal sugar, has a slender constitution and does not age any faster than his peers.
Renal failure in patients with diabetes mellitus is caused not by food protein, but by a chronically elevated level of glucose in the blood. In patients who have poor control of their diabetes, their kidney function gradually deteriorates. Often this is accompanied by hypertension - high blood pressure. Low-carbohydrate diet helps to normalize sugar and thus slow down the development of renal failure.
When sugar in a patient with diabetes returns to normal, the development of renal failure stops, despite an increase in the protein (protein) content in the diet. In the practice of Dr. Bernstein, there were many cases in which patients had kidneys recovered, as in healthy people. However, there is a point of no return, after which a low-carb diet does not help, but rather accelerates the transition to dialysis. Dr. Bernstein writes that this point of no return is the glomerular filtration rate of the kidneys (creatinine clearance) below 40 ml / min.
Read more about the article "Diet for the kidneys in diabetes."
Frequently asked questions and answers
Endocrinologist recommends the opposite - who to believe?
Learn how to choose an accurate blood glucose meter. Make sure your blood glucose meter is not lying. After that, check on it how well different methods of treatment (control) of diabetes mellitus help. After the transition to a low-carbohydrate diet, the sugar drops in 2-3 days. It stabilizes, its jumps stop. Officially recommended diet number 9 does not give such results.
What to eat out?
Plan snacks in advance, get ready for them. Carry a baked ham, nuts, hard cheese, fresh cucumbers, cabbage, greens. If you do not plan snacks, then when you get hungry, you will not be able to quickly get the right food. In a pinch, buy and drink some raw eggs.
Are sugar substitutes allowed?
Patients with insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes can safely consume stevia, as well as other sweeteners that do not increase blood sugar. Try making homemade chocolate with sweeteners. However, in type 2 diabetes, it is undesirable to use any sugar substitutes, including stevia. Because they increase insulin production by the pancreas, inhibit weight loss. This has been confirmed by research and practice.
Are spirits allowed?
Yes, moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages that do not contain sugar and fruit juices is allowed. Drinking alcohol can be if you do not have liver disease, kidney disease, pancreatitis. If you suffer from alcohol dependence, it is easier not to drink at all, than to try to observe moderation. Read more about the article "Alcohol on a diet with diabetes." Do not drink at night to have good sugar the next morning. Because so and not sleep long.
Do I need to limit fats?
You should not artificially limit fats. It does not help to lose weight, reduce blood sugar or achieve any other goals for treating diabetes. Calmly eat fatty red meat, butter, hard cheese. Chicken eggs are especially good. They contain a perfectly balanced composition of amino acids, increase "good" cholesterol in the blood and are affordable. The author of the site Diabet-Med.Com eats about 200 chicken eggs per month.
What foods contain natural healthy fats?
Natural fats of animal origin are no less healthy than vegetable fats. Eat fat sea fish 2-3 times a week or take fish oil - this is good for the heart. Avoid margarine and any convenience foods, so as not to consume harmful trans fats. Take blood tests for cholesterol and triglycerides immediately, and then 6-8 weeks after switching to a low-carbohydrate diet. Ensure that the results have improved, despite the consumption of products containing animal fats. In fact, they are improved precisely because of the consumption of food rich in “good” cholesterol.
Is it necessary to limit the salt?
For diabetics, patients with hypertension or heart failure, doctors often recommend severely limiting salt intake. However, a low-carbohydrate diet removes excess fluid from the body. Because of this, patients have the opportunity to eat more salt without harm to health. Read also the articles "Hypertension" and "Treatment of heart failure".
In the first days after the transition to a low-carbohydrate diet, the state of health deteriorated. What to do?
Possible reasons for the deterioration of health:
- blood sugar dropped too sharply;
- excess fluid has left the body, and with it minerals-electrolytes;
- concerned with constipation.
What to do if blood sugar drops too sharply, read the article “Objectives of treating diabetes: what kind of sugar needs to be achieved.” How to cope with constipation on a low-carb diet, read here. To fill the electrolyte deficiency, it is recommended to drink salted meat or chicken broth. Within a few days the body will get used to the new life, the state of health will be restored and improved. Do not try to limit the calorie intake by following a low-carbohydrate diet.