Diabetes Diet

Grain units for diabetes. XE table

Nutrition for diabetes determines the duration of life.
The general condition of a person, the rate of destruction of his blood vessels, heart, kidneys, joints, eyes, as well as the speed of blood circulation and the possible development of gangrene of the extremities, depend on the level of blood sugar of a diabetic.

For daily control of the amount of carbohydrates in the menu is used the so-called bread unit - HE. It allows you to reduce all the variety of carbohydrate products to the overall assessment system: how much sugar goes into human blood after eating. Based on the XE values ​​for each product, a diabetic's daily menu is compiled.

What is the bread unit XE?

The use of bread units in the calculations of products was proposed by the German nutritionist Carl Noorden in the early 20th century.

A cereal or carbohydrate unit is the amount of carbohydrate that 2 units of insulin require to absorb. At the same time, 1 XE increases sugar by 2.8 mmol / l.

One bread unit can contain from 10 to 15 grams of digestible carbohydrates. The exact value of the indicator, 10 or 15 g of sugar in 1 XE, depends on the accepted medical standards in the country. For example,

  • Russian doctors believe that 1ХЕ is equal to 10-12 g of carbohydrates (10 g - without taking into account dietary fiber in the product, 12 g - taking into account the fibers),
  • in the USA, 1XE is equal to 15 g of sugars.
Grain units are an approximate estimate. For example, one bread unit contains 10 grams of sugar. And also one bread unit is equal to a piece of bread 1 cm thick, cut off from a standard brick loaf.
You need to know that the ratio of 1XE for 2 units of insulin is also approximate and differs in time of day. For the assimilation of the same bread unit in the morning, you need 2 units of insulin, in the afternoon - 1.5, and in the evening - only 1.

How many bread units does a person need?

The rate of use of XE depends on a person's lifestyle.

  • For heavy physical work or to replenish body weight during dystrophy, up to 30 XE per day is necessary.
  • When working moderately and with normal physiological weight - up to 25 XE per day.
  • When seated work - up to 20 XE.
  • For diabetics - up to 15 XE (some medical recommendations allow diabetics up to 20 XE).
  • With obesity - up to 10 XE per day.
For one meal, it is recommended to eat from 3 to 6 XE (not more than 7ХЕ).
Most of the carbohydrates should be eaten in the morning. Diabetics recommend fractional five meals a day. This allows you to reduce the amount of sugar that is absorbed into the bloodstream after each meal (a large amount of carbohydrates at a time will lead to a jump in glucose in the blood).

Patients with diabetes recommend the following intake of bread units throughout the day:

  • Breakfast - 4 XE.
  • Lunch - 2 XE.
  • Lunch - 4-5 XE.
  • Safe, 2 XE.
  • Dinner - 3-4 XE.
  • Before bed - 1-2 XE.

Two types of diets have been developed for the nutrition of diabetics:

  1. balanced - recommends drinking 15-20 XE per day. It is a balanced type of food that most nutritionists and doctors who observe the course of the disease recommend.
  2. low carbohydrate - differs extremely low carbohydrate intake, up to 2 XE per day. However, recommendations for a low-carb diet are relatively new. Observation of patients on this diet indicates positive results and improved condition, but so far this type of diet has not been confirmed by the results of official medicine.

Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Diet: Differences

  • Type 1 diabetes is accompanied by beta-cell damage, they stop producing insulin. With type 1 diabetes, it is necessary to correctly calculate the XE and the insulin dose that you need to inject before eating. There is no need to control the number of calories and limit the consumption of high-calorie foods. Only foods with a high glycemic index are limited (they are quickly absorbed and cause a sharp increase in sugar — sweet juice, jam, sugar, cake, cake).
  • Type 2 diabetes is not accompanied by the death of beta cells. With type 2 disease, there are beta cells, and they work with overload. Therefore, nutrition of type 2 diabetics limits the intake of carbohydrate products in order to give beta cells a long-awaited rest and stimulate the patient to lose weight. In this case, both the amount of XE and the caloric content are calculated.

Calories in diabetes

Most patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are overweight.
  85% of type 2 diabetes was provoked by an excessive amount of adipose tissue. The accumulation of fat provokes the development of diabetes in the presence of a hereditary factor. In turn, weight control in diabetes prevents complications. Weight loss leads to an increase in the life expectancy of a diabetic. Therefore, the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes must control not only HE, but also the calorie content of foods.

By itself, the caloric content of food does not affect the amount of sugar in the blood. Therefore, with normal weight, it can be ignored.
Daily calorie intake also depends on lifestyle and varies from 1500 to 3000 kcal. How to calculate the number of calories needed?

  1. Determine the rate of basic metabolism (GS) by the formula
    • For men: OO = 66 + weight, kg * 13.7 + height, cm * 5 - age * 6.8.
    • For women: OO = 655 + weight, kg * 9.6 + height, cm * 1.8 - age * 4.7
  2. The resulting value of the coefficient of OO multiplied by the coefficient of lifestyle:
    • Very high activity - OO * 1.9.
    • High activity - OO * 1,725.
    • Average activity - OO * 1.55.
    • Slight activity - OO * 1,375.
    • Low activity - OO * 1.2.
    • If necessary, lose weight daily calorie rate is reduced by 10-20% of the optimal value.
Let's give an example. For an average office worker weighing 80 kg, 170 cm tall, 45 years old, a diabetic patient and a sedentary lifestyle, the norm of calories will be 2045 kcal. If he goes to the gym, the daily caloric intake of his food will increase to 2350 kcal. If you need to lose weight, the daily rate is reduced to 1600-1800 kcal.
The content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, caloric content of finished products is indicated on the package.
Based on this, you can calculate how many calories in a bun, canned food, ryazhenka or juice. The value of calories and carbohydrates is indicated in 100 g of this product. In order to determine the calorie content of a loaf of bread or a pack of cookies, it is necessary to count the carbohydrate content by the weight of the pack.

Let's give an example.
On the package of sour cream weighing 450 g, the caloric content is 158 kcal and the carbohydrate content is 2.8 g per 100 g. We recalculate the number of calories per weight of packaging 450 g.
158 * 450/100 = 711 kcal
Similarly, we count the carbohydrate content in the package:
2.8 * 450/100 = 12.6 g or 1ХЕ
That is, the product is low carbohydrate, but at the same time high-calorie.

Table of bread units

We give the value of HE for the most used types of products and ready meals.

The product's nameThe amount of product in 1HE, gCalories, kcal per 100 g
Berries, fruits and dried fruits
Dried apricots20270
Banana6090
Pear10042
A pineapple11048
Apricot11040
Watermelon13540
Tangerines15038
An Apple15046
Raspberries17041
Strawberry19035
Lemon27028
Honey15314
Grain products
White bread (fresh or dry)25235
Wholemeal rye bread30200
Oatmeal2090
Wheat1590
Pic15115
Buckwheat15160
Flour15 g329
Manka15326
Bran5032
Pasta dry15298
Vegetables
Corn10072
Cabbage15090
Green pea19070
Cucumbers20010
Pumpkin20095
Eggplant20024
Tomato juice25020
Beans30032
Carrot40033
Beet40048
Greenery60018
Milk products
Cheese mass100280
Fruit yoghurt10050
Condensed milk130135
Unsweetened Yoghurt20040
Milk, 3.5% fat20060
Ryazhenka20085
Kefir25030
Sour cream, 10%116
Cheese Cheese260
The nuts
Cashew nuts40568
Cedar50654
Pistachio50580
Almond55645
Hazelnut90600
Walnuts90630
Meat products and fish *
Beef stew0180
Beef liver0230
Beef cutlet, only ground beef0220
Pork chop0150
Lamb chop0340
Trout0170
River fish0165
Salmon0145
Eggless than 1156

*Animal protein (meat, fish) does not contain carbohydrates. Therefore, the number of XE in it is zero. The exceptions are meat dishes, in the preparation of which carbohydrates were additionally used. For example, soaked bread or semolina is often added to minced meat.

The egg carbohydrate content is 0.4 g per 100 g egg. Therefore, the indicator XE in eggs is not zero, but is of little importance.

The drinks
Orange juice10045
Apple juice10046
Tea with sugar15030
Coffee with sugar15030
Compote250100
Kissel250125
Kvass25034
Beer30030
Sweets
Marmalade20296
Milk chocolate25550
Choux pastry25330
Ice cream80270

Table - HE in finished products and dishes

Name of the finished productThe amount of product in 1HE, g
Yeast dough25
Puff pastry35
Pancake30
Pancake with curd or meat50
Dumplings with cottage cheese or meat50
Tomato sauce50
Boiled potatoes70
Mashed potatoes75
Chicken bytes85
Chicken wing100
Cheesecakes100
The vinaigrette110
Vegetable stuffed cabbage120
Pea soup150
Borscht300

Glycemic index - what is it and how important is it?

There is and is used in the calculations of the menu of diabetics another indicator - the glycemic index. This is the rate of absorption of carbohydrates in the intestines.

A product with a high glycemic index (honey, sugar, jam, sweet juice - fast carbohydrates that do not contain fat) is characterized by a high absorption rate. In this case, the peak high blood sugar is formed quickly and reaches maximum values.

For foods with a low glycemic index (contain besides carbohydrates fats), the speed of absorption in the intestine is slow. They are digested longer and more slowly supply glucose to human blood (slow carbohydrates). Peak increase in the amount of sugar in the blood does not occur, less injury to the blood vessels, less insulin.

Grain units and human energy exchange

The energy metabolism of a person is formed from carbohydrates that go inside with food. In the intestines, carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars and absorbed into the blood. The bloodstream carries sugar (glucose) to the cells of the body. Glucose for cells is the main source of energy.

Immediately after eating, an increased amount of sugar is formed in the blood. The more sugar, the more insulin is needed. In a healthy body, insulin production is regulated by the pancreas. In diabetes, a person must calculate how much insulin he needs to enter into the blood in order to absorb the amount of carbohydrates eaten. At the same time overdose and lack of insulin are equally dangerous.

The use of tables of bread units in foods and dishes allows you to quickly determine the amount of insulin needed and to make a diabetic menu correctly.

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