For daily control of the amount of carbohydrates in the menu is used the so-called bread unit - HE. It allows you to reduce all the variety of carbohydrate products to the overall assessment system: how much sugar goes into human blood after eating. Based on the XE values for each product, a diabetic's daily menu is compiled.
What is the bread unit XE?
The use of bread units in the calculations of products was proposed by the German nutritionist Carl Noorden in the early 20th century.
One bread unit can contain from 10 to 15 grams of digestible carbohydrates. The exact value of the indicator, 10 or 15 g of sugar in 1 XE, depends on the accepted medical standards in the country. For example,
- Russian doctors believe that 1ХЕ is equal to 10-12 g of carbohydrates (10 g - without taking into account dietary fiber in the product, 12 g - taking into account the fibers),
- in the USA, 1XE is equal to 15 g of sugars.
How many bread units does a person need?
- For heavy physical work or to replenish body weight during dystrophy, up to 30 XE per day is necessary.
- When working moderately and with normal physiological weight - up to 25 XE per day.
- When seated work - up to 20 XE.
- For diabetics - up to 15 XE (some medical recommendations allow diabetics up to 20 XE).
- With obesity - up to 10 XE per day.
- Breakfast - 4 XE.
- Lunch - 2 XE.
- Lunch - 4-5 XE.
- Safe, 2 XE.
- Dinner - 3-4 XE.
- Before bed - 1-2 XE.
Two types of diets have been developed for the nutrition of diabetics:
- balanced - recommends drinking 15-20 XE per day. It is a balanced type of food that most nutritionists and doctors who observe the course of the disease recommend.
- low carbohydrate - differs extremely low carbohydrate intake, up to 2 XE per day. However, recommendations for a low-carb diet are relatively new. Observation of patients on this diet indicates positive results and improved condition, but so far this type of diet has not been confirmed by the results of official medicine.
Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Diet: Differences
- Type 1 diabetes is accompanied by beta-cell damage, they stop producing insulin. With type 1 diabetes, it is necessary to correctly calculate the XE and the insulin dose that you need to inject before eating. There is no need to control the number of calories and limit the consumption of high-calorie foods. Only foods with a high glycemic index are limited (they are quickly absorbed and cause a sharp increase in sugar — sweet juice, jam, sugar, cake, cake).
- Type 2 diabetes is not accompanied by the death of beta cells. With type 2 disease, there are beta cells, and they work with overload. Therefore, nutrition of type 2 diabetics limits the intake of carbohydrate products in order to give beta cells a long-awaited rest and stimulate the patient to lose weight. In this case, both the amount of XE and the caloric content are calculated.
Calories in diabetes
- Determine the rate of basic metabolism (GS) by the formula
- For men: OO = 66 + weight, kg * 13.7 + height, cm * 5 - age * 6.8.
- For women: OO = 655 + weight, kg * 9.6 + height, cm * 1.8 - age * 4.7
- The resulting value of the coefficient of OO multiplied by the coefficient of lifestyle:
- Very high activity - OO * 1.9.
- High activity - OO * 1,725.
- Average activity - OO * 1.55.
- Slight activity - OO * 1,375.
- Low activity - OO * 1.2.
- If necessary, lose weight daily calorie rate is reduced by 10-20% of the optimal value.
On the package of sour cream weighing 450 g, the caloric content is 158 kcal and the carbohydrate content is 2.8 g per 100 g. We recalculate the number of calories per weight of packaging 450 g.
158 * 450/100 = 711 kcal
Similarly, we count the carbohydrate content in the package:
2.8 * 450/100 = 12.6 g or 1ХЕ
That is, the product is low carbohydrate, but at the same time high-calorie.
Table of bread units
We give the value of HE for the most used types of products and ready meals.
|The product's name||The amount of product in 1HE, g||Calories, kcal per 100 g|
|Berries, fruits and dried fruits|
|White bread (fresh or dry)||25||235|
|Wholemeal rye bread||30||200|
|Milk, 3.5% fat||200||60|
|Sour cream, 10%||116|
|Meat products and fish *|
|Beef cutlet, only ground beef||0||220|
|Egg||less than 1||156|
*Animal protein (meat, fish) does not contain carbohydrates. Therefore, the number of XE in it is zero. The exceptions are meat dishes, in the preparation of which carbohydrates were additionally used. For example, soaked bread or semolina is often added to minced meat.
The egg carbohydrate content is 0.4 g per 100 g egg. Therefore, the indicator XE in eggs is not zero, but is of little importance.
|Tea with sugar||150||30|
|Coffee with sugar||150||30|
Table - HE in finished products and dishes
|Name of the finished product||The amount of product in 1HE, g|
|Pancake with curd or meat||50|
|Dumplings with cottage cheese or meat||50|
|Vegetable stuffed cabbage||120|
Glycemic index - what is it and how important is it?
A product with a high glycemic index (honey, sugar, jam, sweet juice - fast carbohydrates that do not contain fat) is characterized by a high absorption rate. In this case, the peak high blood sugar is formed quickly and reaches maximum values.
For foods with a low glycemic index (contain besides carbohydrates fats), the speed of absorption in the intestine is slow. They are digested longer and more slowly supply glucose to human blood (slow carbohydrates). Peak increase in the amount of sugar in the blood does not occur, less injury to the blood vessels, less insulin.
Grain units and human energy exchange
The energy metabolism of a person is formed from carbohydrates that go inside with food. In the intestines, carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars and absorbed into the blood. The bloodstream carries sugar (glucose) to the cells of the body. Glucose for cells is the main source of energy.
Immediately after eating, an increased amount of sugar is formed in the blood. The more sugar, the more insulin is needed. In a healthy body, insulin production is regulated by the pancreas. In diabetes, a person must calculate how much insulin he needs to enter into the blood in order to absorb the amount of carbohydrates eaten. At the same time overdose and lack of insulin are equally dangerous.