Diabetes mellitus has two variants of development: insulin-dependent, in which the pancreas loses its ability to produce insulin. More often, children and young people suffer from such diabetes. The development of symptoms of type 1 diabetes is rapid and sudden.
The second type of diabetes occurs on the background of normal, reduced or increased production of insulin. That is, its course does not depend on how much of this hormone is produced, but the receptors of the internal organs do not react to insulin. The second type of diabetes is predominantly sick in adulthood. Symptoms are increasing slowly.
Despite different variants of the course of the disease, the main manifestations of diabetes are associated with the end result of metabolic disorders - an increased level of glucose in the blood.
Risk factors for diabetes
Diabetes mellitus has each person its own developmental trigger. Therefore, how to identify and diabetes, and predisposition to it, you need to know everyone who wants to stay healthy.
In the presence of risk factors, be sure to undergo an examination.
The main conditions for the development of diabetes:
- Burdened heredity. Diabetes in a child can develop if one or both parents have diabetes.
- Viral infections - infection with rubella virus, cytomegalovirus infection, mumps, Coxsackie, influenza, hepatitis.
- Autoimmune diseases - with concomitant rheumatoid arthritis, thyroiditis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Raynaud's syndrome.
These causes usually lead to the onset of type 1 diabetes. The second type has other developmental mechanisms associated with impaired glucose uptake due to the loss of the ability of insulin receptors to respond to insulin. It is characterized by such predisposing factors:
- Overweight, especially fat deposition at the waist.
- Lack of physical activity.
- Pancreas diseases - pancreatitis and tumor processes.
- Mature and old age.
- Arterial hypertension.
- Psycho-emotional stress.
- Chronic kidney or liver disease.
For women who had gestational diabetes during pregnancy, when a baby is born weighing 4.5 kg or more, in the case of habitual miscarriages and polycystic ovaries, it is also necessary to monitor blood sugar levels at least once a year.
Predisposing factors include ischemic heart disease.
First symptoms of diabetes
Diabetes can begin suddenly with an attack of a sharp rise in sugar or even the development of diabetic coma (the first type of diabetes).
But more often it is masked as other diseases, or until a certain time it does not manifest itself and is found by chance during the examination.
The first signs of diabetes include:
- Reinforced thirst, not passing after drinking water, arising even at night, dry mouth.
- Frequent and more abundant than usual urination caused by the excretion of glucose and the attraction of water to it.
- Increased hunger and the desire to eat sweets - due to the inability of the organs to get glucose from the blood.
- Weight loss: with good appetite, frequent and abundant food intake weight falls. This is usually a symptom and complication of type 1 diabetes.
- Itching of the skin and mucous membranes, caused by the release of metabolic products through the pores, dry skin and fungal infections.
- Overweight is one of the risk factors for type 2 diabetes, with its development it becomes difficult to lose weight.
- Increased weakness, fatigue, chronic fatigue.
In addition, there may be warning signs such as reduced vision, headaches, insomnia, tingling in the hands and feet. It may also be disturbed by numbness and crawling in the lower limbs, cramps, aggravated at night.
One of the symptoms that helps recognize diabetes is poor healing of wounds and cuts. Tendency to infectious and fungal diseases can be a manifestation of reduced immunity that accompanies diabetes mellitus.
In men, the onset of diabetes can manifest itself as a decrease in sexual desire and erection, infertility. Women develop dryness in the vagina, the inability to achieve orgasm and irregular menstruation.
The skin becomes dry, scaly and dehydrated, the hair looks overdried and fall out, the nails exfoliate.
The skin is prone to acne, furunculosis.
What tests reveal diabetes?
At the appearance of the slightest suspicion of diabetes or at the age of forty, everyone is shown to undergo a carbohydrate metabolism study.
To do this, you must donate blood for glucose in the blood (from a vein or from a finger). The analysis is carried out on an empty stomach, better in the morning. On the day of delivery you can not eat breakfast, drink coffee, smoke, exercise. When taking any medications you need to inform the doctor.
A normal result is considered to be a measure (in mmol / l) from 4.1 to 5.9.
In the event that the result of the analysis is at the upper limit of the norm, and the patient has predisposing factors (overweight, hypertension, mature age, concomitant diseases), it is recommended to make restrictions on the diet and take herbal remedies for the prevention of diabetes.
In order to control diabetes at home, you need to purchase a blood glucose meter and test strips. Measuring the level of glucose should be carried out regularly not only on an empty stomach, but also two hours after a meal, as well as before bedtime.
A blood glucose test can only show a situational result. For more in-depth diagnosis, you need to conduct the following studies:
- Glucose-tolerant test.
- Analysis of the level of glycated hemoglobin.
- Analysis of sugar in the urine.
- Biochemical analysis of blood for C-reactive protein.
Even if the content of glucose in the blood is within normal limits, then to detect diabetes mellitus, it is necessary to pass an analysis with a load - a glucose-tolerant test. It is indicated for endocrine diseases, hypertension, obesity, long-term hormonal medication, as well as for a long course of infectious diseases.
Before the test, you can not play sports, go to the sauna, do not take alcohol for a day. On the day of the study is prohibited to smoke and drink coffee. The last meal may be 10 hours before the test.
At the beginning of the diagnosis, blood is taken for glucose content, then 75 g of glucose is taken with water, then its level is re-measured after an hour and two hours later.
Norm - 7.8 mmol / l, with an indicator from 7.8 to 11.1 mmol / l, diagnose prediabetes, and with a value above 11, the patient has diabetes.
To determine the average level of glucose in the previous three months, conduct a study of glycated hemoglobin. It must be taken in the morning before meals. Before that, for three days there should not be abundant bleeding, intravenous injections of fluids.
An indicator from 4.5 to 6.5 percent is considered normal, from 6 to 6.5 percent reflects the development of prediabetes, a diagnosis of diabetes is made if the level is above 6.5%.
A urine sugar test is performed by examining daily urine. For 24 hours, carrots, beets, tomatoes and citrus fruits are excluded from the menu. A normal result is considered if sugar in the urine is not detected or not more than 0.08 mmol / l.
When sugar is detected in the urine, diabetes of pregnant women, if the symptoms of diabetes are present, and tests for glucose level are normal, there is a genetic predisposition, then an analysis for C-reactive protein is performed.
The day before the analysis, you can not take aspirin and ascorbic acid, hormonal drugs, including contraceptives. The last meal can be no later than ten hours before the analysis.
The normal C-peptide index in venous blood ranges from 297 to 1323 pmol / l. Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed if the value is higher, a decrease may be a sign of type 1 diabetes.
Evaluation of laboratory tests should be carried out by a competent specialist - an endocrinologist who can correctly diagnose carbohydrate metabolism disorders, identify diabetes, suggest which tests should be performed to clarify the diagnosis and prescribe medications for treatment. The video in this article will help to learn about the symptoms of diabetes.