Osteoarthritis - what is it?
Osteoarthritis is considered a senile disease and is formed when there is insufficient intake of vitamins, microelements and collagen substances in the body.
Cartilage in the joint performs the function of a protective pad between the bones. Wear and tear of cartilage in the knee joints occurs daily with motor loads - walking, sitting down, climbing steps. This process must be replenished by the formation of new cells in the cartilage tissue and the replenishment of the joint fluid. With a lack of nutrition and blood supply, cartilage ceases to restore its structure, arthrosis is formed in the joint disease.
- In diabetes, the main source of problems and complications is insufficient blood supply. The blood of a patient with diabetes is thick and viscous, it slowly moves through the vessels and does not fully supply the cells with oxygen and nutrition. Thus, diabetes contributes to arthrosis.
- In the process of cell activity, so-called wastes are formed. Their transportation to the elimination organs (intestines, lungs, bladder) also occurs with blood flow. Reduced blood flow does not provide complete removal of carbon dioxide and other wastes. This forms intracellular poisoning and inflammation.
- Diabetes in 85% of cases is accompanied by obesity. Excess weight is a source of stress on depleted knee joints. The combination of fasting cartilage and increased stress forms one of the complications of diabetes - osteoarthritis of the knee joint.
Causes of Arthrosis in Diabetics
In addition to the main cause of the disease - wear and tear of cartilage and the impossibility of its recovery, there are additional factors that accelerate the appearance of the disease:
- Frequent heavy loads on the knee joints (obesity, too long walking movements) form the conditions for the wear of hyaline (knee) cartilage.
- Low motor activity - reduces blood flow and forms complications.
- Frequent microtraumas (working in security or loading) require replenishment, healing, and an increased amount of nutrients and collagen substances.
- Arthritis - inflammation of the joints, often provokes their destruction - arthrosis.
- Age-related violations of collagen synthesis. This protein, which occupies 25% of the total protein composition of the human body. Collagen consists of any connective tissue - cartilage, ligaments. With age, a person weakens collagen synthesis, which provokes arthrosis, arthritis, sprains, fractures.
Symptoms of arthrosis: how does the disease manifest itself in diabetics?
The main symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee joint are pain, inability to perform movement, slight periodic edema.
1. In the early stage of the disease, the pain appears suddenly and lasts briefly. Most often, pain occurs when walking up the stairs and lifting from a sitting position (from a chair, sofa, chair). At rest, the pain passes and does not bother.
The emergence of sharp pain is preceded by several years of periodic weak pain during prolonged walking or running.
2. The next stage of the disease is manifested in an increase in puffiness. Sometimes the amount of fluid accumulated around the joint increases and goes to the back side of the patella - under the knee bend. Such a tumor is called a Baker cyst. For her treatment does not need surgery. Anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous drugs, hormonal drugs are used.
3. The next stage of progression of arthrosis in diabetics comes earlier and faster than in people without disturbing the metabolic processes. Pains appear at the slightest loadings, are caused by any movement and disappear only after a long rest. There is an audible loud crunch in the knee when moving. The knee ceases to bend "all the way", often the joint can be bent only 90º. It becomes noticeable violation of the shape of the joint, its swelling.
4. The last stage of osteoarthritis of the knee in diabetics is often accompanied by other unpleasant complications - poor wound healing, the appearance of ulcers and loss of sensation of the feet and feet. Pains are disturbed even without loads or movements. Despite the poor sensitivity of the extremities, which is formed in diabetes, pain persecutes the person. The knee does not bend or straighten until the end. Inflammation spreads to adjacent muscles and ligaments. The inability to move independently makes the patient disabled.
Treatment of arthrosis in diabetics
- Chondroprotectors - substances for the restoration of cartilage tissue. These are chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine and hyaluronic acid. In combination, they provide collagen synthesis. Collagen and glucosamine can be delivered to the blood (tablets) or through the skin (from an external cream). Hyaluronic acid is administered as an intra-articular injection. It must be remembered that the restoration of cartilage tissue is a slow process that lasts a long time, up to 1.5-2 years. Chondroprotectors are ineffective in the third stage of the disease, when the knee cartilage is completely destroyed.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs - reduce the area of inflammation, reduce the edema of the knee joint, have an additional analgesic effect. Traditionally, diclofenac, ketoprofen, ibuprofen, phenylbutazone, indomethacin are prescribed. This group of drugs with long-term use disrupts the digestive system and kidneys in 20% of ordinary patients and in 40% of diabetic patients. Therefore, for patients with diabetes, it is better to replace these drugs with anti-inflammatory drugs of the new generation (for example, Austrian drug Movalis, or Tenoktil, Ksefokam).
- Separate painkillers (if necessary) - drugs, corticosteroid drugs in the form of intra-articular injections, as well as compresses, ointments.
- Preparations for reducing blood viscosity.
- Means to relieve muscle spasm (massage and acupuncture - relieve spasm and restore blood flow).
- Surgery - an extreme method of treating arthrosis in diabetics. It is undesirable to bring the disease to surgical treatment, since in diabetics any wounds heal poorly and slowly.
Prevention of arthrosis in diabetes
- Healthy nutrition and daily massage.
- Therapeutic gymnastics, walking, healthy exercise.
- Strict control of carbohydrates in the menu and blood sugar. In addition, doctors do not advise patients with diabetes to eat foods with preservatives, food additives. Dishes such as store ketchup, sausage, mayonnaise, dairy products of long-term storage, as well as high-calorie foods (for control and weight reduction) should be excluded from the menu.
- Since diabetics have reduced blood flow, periodic intake of increased doses of vitamins, minerals and chondroprotectors is necessary.