Pancreatitis is an inflammatory pathology of the pancreas. This organ has two main functions: it synthesizes hormones - insulin and glucagon - and pancreatic juice enzymes. The work of the pancreas can disrupt various factors, ranging from malnutrition and ending with tumor processes.
Pancreatitis can occur in an acute and chronic form. In the first case, the process of autolysis, that is, the self-digestion of gland tissues with its own enzymes due to medication (Tetracycline and its derivatives, Furosemide, Metronidazole), viral or bacterial infection, injury to the abdominal cavity is launched. Acute pancreatitis often occurs on the background of other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or after drinking large doses of alcohol.
More than half of the patients have chronic recurrent pancreatitis, the clinical picture of which during attacks resembles an acute form of the disease. Somewhat less common is the pain type, which is characterized by non-collapsing pain syndrome.
The latent, hidden type of pathology of the pancreas is the most insidious, since no symptoms are observed for an extended period. Pseudotumor, or pseudotumor, pancreatitis is diagnosed very rarely and is characterized by uneven pancreatic hypertrophy.
Why do you need it?
The most important part of therapy is dietary nutrition, necessary to facilitate the work of the damaged organ. Diet for pancreatitis can reduce inflammation, stop pain and prevent the development of complications.
In addition, the right food helps:
- normalize the production of digestive enzymes;
- stop the destruction of the pancreas;
- protect the intestinal mucosa from irritation;
- reduce the general intoxication of the body.
It is important to know that violations of the diet, especially frequent and gross, can cause irreparable harm and lead to the development of such terrible diseases as diabetes, stomach ulcers. If there are errors in the diet, technical jaundice may occur due to poor outflow of bile. Since there is a close relationship between the pancreas and the intestines, stomach, liver and gall bladder, the work of these organs also fails.
Diet for acute pancreatitis
Acute pancreatitis is characterized by severe and unbearable pain in the abdomen due to damage to the parenchyma cells by prematurely activated enzymes. To stop this process, it is necessary to stop the synthesis of pancreatic secretions. Reaching the goal helps refusal of any food for a day or two.
During the fasting period, parenteral nutrition is administered to patients with pancreatitis by intravenous infusion, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract. Due to the fact that a person needs a complete protein, immediately after the relief of acute symptoms, they switch to the usual method of eating. Gradually and consistently expand the diet, introducing into it new products and dishes. The most important condition at this stage is the observance of a gentle regimen, which excludes mechanical damage to the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract.
In the first days after fasting, it is allowed to drink mineral water with alkaline properties — Borjomi, Yessentuki No. 4 and No. 17, as well as dogrose broth and lightly brewed tea. Drink should not be cold or hot, it is best to use slightly warm drinks.
The table clearly shows how much protein, fat and carbohydrates are found in basic foods.
The maximum fasting period is 4 days, after which in some cases the function of the gland is fully restored. However, dietary nutrition for at least several months is recommended for all patients.
The basis of nutrition in pancreatitis is diet No. 5, recommended for patients with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Inflammation of the pancreas is often combined with impaired function of the liver, biliary tract, stomach and intestines, therefore the basic principle of the diet is mechanical, thermal and chemical sparing of organs.
In the first two days after an acute attack, you can only eat semi-liquid food - cereal and vegetable soups on the water, decoctions of cereals, jelly and fruit jelly. You can not cook porridge from millet and corn, because these grains are heavy for digestion. Sugar and salt is better not to add to the dishes. From solid food it is allowed to eat crackers and dried white bread.
Medical fasting is an integral part of pancreatitis therapy, preceding a benign diet.
It is important to know that eating pancreatitis is necessary in small portions, not more than 100 g at a time. Frequent food intake will help to satisfy hunger, 6 to 8 times a day. Gradually, the volume of servings increases, and already after 2 days, protein products are introduced into the ration - cottage cheese soufflé and puddings, protein omelet from steamed chicken eggs.
The next, fourth day, you can eat porridge, cooked in milk, and mashed soups in broth. By the end of the first week after the attack, butter, vegetable soups and mashed grated vegetables, except cabbage, are introduced into the diet. Especially useful will be dishes from beets, carrots and potatoes.
After that, the list of products is expanded and steam cutlets, souffles, meat and fish bits are added to it. They need to be cooked from lean meat and fish - rabbit, turkey, chicken, veal, cod, pollock, hake and carp. Fat, leather and veins are pre-removed.
These are the basic rules of diet in the acute form of pancreatitis. Next, a treatment table 5p is assigned, also used for chronic pancreatic inflammation.
Diet number 5 P and its features
Nutrition for pancreatitis of the pancreas without exacerbation limits the consumption of fats, carbohydrates and sugar while maintaining the daily requirement of protein products:
- proteins - 100-120 g .;
- animal fats - 55 g;
- vegetable fats - 15 gr .;
- carbohydrates, including sugar - 300-350 gr .;
- salt - up to 10 grams.
The total caloric intake of the daily diet should not exceed 2500 kcal. Correct the rate of salt will help simple rule, which is to salt the ready-made dishes, and not in the process of their preparation.
Calcined cottage cheese is much easier to prepare than usual: you just need to heat the milk and mix it with calcium chloride.
If there are problems with the digestion of protein foods, then it is partially replaced by carbohydrates, but only for a while. Restrictions apply to the content of extractive substances contained in meat. Therefore, before cooking, the meat is cut into small pieces, and after boiling the first broth is drained. The meat cooked in this way is ground in a meat grinder and used to make steam cutlets and souffles. For better learning, it is recommended to scroll the mince twice.
With a good tolerability of the menu for patients with pancreatitis, it expands due to fats, mainly of plant origin. Animal fat in most cases is poorly digested and causes indigestion.
Food during pancreatitis should not stimulate the formation of pancreatic juice, therefore, are excluded from the diet:
- meat, mushroom and fish broths;
- coffee and carbonated drinks, as well as store juices and kvass;
- pickled and pickled vegetables;
- legumes - peas, beans, soybeans, lentils, corn, chickpeas;
- fresh bread, pastry and puff pastry;
- sausage, sausages, wieners, ham;
- Some varieties of vegetables are radish, radish, sorrel, onions, horseradish, ginger, garlic, cabbage, cucumbers and tomatoes;
- fruits - citrus fruits, pomegranates, pears, cranberries, cherries, bananas, grapes, dates;
- dairy products of high fat content - whole milk, cream, home-made sour cream, spicy and salty cheeses;
- semi-finished products.
Diet for pancreatitis in adults is observed throughout life, however, in the case of prolonged remission, some relaxation is possible. It should be noted that fasting is also useful in the chronic form of the disease in order to relieve the digestive tract.
In the absence of food, enzymes, gastric juice and bile are produced in a minimal amount, and all internal organs go into sleep mode. As a result, the body's energy is spent on the restoration of the diseased organ and the stimulation of regeneration processes.
Carrot soup is one of the favorites of the diet menu, you can add cereals and other healthy vegetables
It must be remembered that the term of medical fasting should be reasonable and not exceed 24 hours. Long and complete abandonment of food and water can lead to the development of hypercatabolism and exhaustion. This, in turn, adversely affects the general state of health and the state of the pancreas.
If dry fasting is used, the body is provided with maximum peace, since the excretion of digestive juices is not even stimulated by fluid. During the period of fasting, it is necessary to limit physical activity, and it is best to observe bed rest.
Dry fasting is carried out no more than once a week, in some cases it is allowed to fast for 2-3 days in a row. Regular practice of such unloading allows you to avoid exacerbations and improve the work of the pancreas.
Poor nutrition immediately after going out of fasting can be varied dishes from cottage cheese. Every day it is recommended to prepare a fresh product using calcium chloride, which is sold in pharmacies. For the preparation of homemade cottage cheese will need milk of any kind - pasteurized, lactose-free or sterilized.
Broth hips is not only safe for the pancreas, but also helps to strengthen the immune system, the nervous system and blood vessels; This versatile drink has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects.
Raw milk is heated to a temperature of about 40 °, stirring constantly. Then slowly pour in the drug 10% calcium, and bring the mixture to a boil. After the milk is rolled up, it is removed from the heat and cooled. For half a liter of milk, 1-1.5 Art. l calcium chloride.
In the process of cooking cottage cheese, you need to monitor the accuracy of the dosage, since an excessive amount of calcium will give bitterness to the product. After cooling, the resulting mass should be wrapped in cheesecloth or put in a fine sieve to drain the water and make the curd friable.
Sample menu in the days of a strict diet may be as follows:
|Breakfast||Semi-thin, grated oatmeal porridge Curd pudding Steam Rosehip decoction|
|Lunch||Baked Apple Slightly Brewed Tea|
|Dinner||Buckwheat Soup with Mashed Carrots Veal Pate Peach Kissel|
|Afternoon tea||Vegetable puree (pumpkin, zucchini, beet)|
|Dinner||Cooked rice porridge Steamed chicken meatballs|
|Late dinner||Raspberry compote without sugar|
As the symptoms subside, you should eat variously with pancreatitis and add not frayed foods to the diet, and then switch to fresh vegetables and fruits. The amount of white bread can be increased to 300 gr. per day, butter - up to 30 gr.
Proper nutrition for pancreatitis in the chronic stage is the mucous soups, mashed potatoes, boiled or steamed meat, side dishes of boiled and steamed cereals and vegetables.
The range of approved products during remission is quite wide, and salads from grated carrots, beets, pumpkins and cucumbers may be present in the diet. If you feel well, you can cook meat in a whole piece or make beef stroganoff, as well as sauces for it.
To make a cream soup, you must first boil all the ingredients, then grind them, pour the resulting broth and bring to a boil. To help improve the taste lizon - a mixture of milk, eggs and salt. Its classic version is the usual omelette, which has a dense and at the same time soft structure.
The density of lezona directly depends on the number of eggs, the optimal ratio is 1 egg per half cup of milk. If necessary, starch or flour is added for greater thickness. Lezon is put into the soup at the very end, and then boiling is stopped.
Thus, you should carefully choose what you have with pancreatitis, and gradually change your eating habits. It is not easy, but not as difficult as it may seem at first glance. Thinking through the daily menu, as well as the menu for the week, and adjusting to the situation, it is quite possible to provide yourself with tasty and healthy food. If you follow all the rules and thoughtful use of permitted products for pancreatitis, the result will not be long in coming, and the body will definitely respond with lightness in the body, good digestion and mood!