Blood sugar is the main laboratory indicator that all diabetics regularly monitor. But even healthy people, doctors recommend taking this analysis at least once a year. The interpretation of the result depends on the units of measurement of blood sugar, which may differ in different countries and medical institutions. Knowing the norms for each quantity, one can easily estimate how close the obtained figures are to the ideal value.
Molecular mass measurement
In Russia and neighboring countries, the blood glucose level is most often measured in mmol / l. This indicator is calculated based on the molecular weight of glucose and the approximate volume of circulating blood. Rates for capillary and venous blood are slightly different. For the study of the latter, they are usually higher by 10-12%, which is associated with the physiological characteristics of the human body.
Norms of sugar for venous blood are 3.5 - 6.1 mmol / l
The rate of blood sugar taken on an empty stomach from a finger (capillary) is 3.3 - 5.5 mmol / l. Values that exceed this indicator indicate hyperglycemia. This does not always mean diabetes, since various factors may cause an increase in glucose concentration, but a deviation from the norm is a reason for a control retake of the study and a visit to an endocrinologist.
If the glucose test result is lower than 3.3 mmol / l, this indicates hypoglycemia (reduced sugar level). In this state there is also nothing good, and it is necessary to deal with the reasons for its occurrence together with the doctor. To avoid fainting with established hypoglycemia, a person needs to eat food with fast carbohydrates as quickly as possible (for example, drink sweet tea with a sandwich or a nutritional bar).
The weight method of calculating the concentration of glucose is very common in the United States and many European countries. With this method of analysis, it is calculated how much mg of sugar is contained in the blood deciliter (mg / dL). Earlier in the countries of the USSR, mg% was used (according to the method of determination, this is the same as mg / dL). Despite the fact that most modern glucometers are designed specifically for determining the concentration of sugar in mmol / l, the weight method remains popular in many countries.
Transfer the value of the result of the analysis from one system to another is not difficult. To do this, you must multiply the resulting figure in mmol / l by 18.02 (this is the conversion factor, which is suitable for glucose, based on its molecular weight). For example, 5.5 mmol / L is equivalent to 99.11 mg / dL. If it is necessary to perform the reverse calculation, the number obtained in the weight measurement should be divided by 18.02.
The most important thing is that the device, which carried out the analysis, worked correctly and had no errors. To do this, the meter must be periodically calibrated, if necessary, replace the batteries in time and sometimes carry out control measurements.