The pancreas has an alveolar-acinous structure, consists of many slices that are at a short distance from each other, separated by layers of connective tissue. Each lobule is an accumulation of secretory epithelial cells of various shapes, in which the formation of pancreatic juice occurs.
Among the cells of the parenchyma there are specific cells that are grouped into clusters. They are called islets of Langerhans. The value varies from 50 to 40 microns in diameter. The total mass of not more than 3% of the entire pancreas of an adult.
The pancreatic islets are richly supplied with the smallest blood vessels and capillaries, they are not equipped with excretory channels, but they have internal secretion, as a result of which they produce hormones directly into the blood. Also regulate carbohydrate processes in the human body.
Consider the physiology of the pancreas, what is the intrasecretory and exocrine functionality of an internal organ.
The role of the gland in the body
The organ of the digestive system produces various enzymes and hormones. He has two "responsibilities" - this is the endocrine function of the pancreas (the other names are endocrine, intrasecretory) and the exocrine function - exocrine activity.
The internal organ is located in the abdominal cavity. It fits the back wall of the stomach, is localized at the level of the first lumbar vertebrae. This is about 10 centimeters higher than the navel closer to the left side.
The peculiarity of the body is that it has several segments. It is divided into head and tail parts, as well as the body. The functionality of the pancreas is of great importance for the normal functioning of the whole organism. In case of malfunctioning, there is a disorder of the digestive processes. If pancreatic islet dysfunction is detected, diabetes mellitus develops in adults and children.
If conditionally, the pancreas can be considered as an organ of the digestive system, consisting of two parts - a large number of small glands and channels through which pancreatic secretion enters the duodenum.
Normally, the weight of an organ does not exceed 80 g, for a day it produces about 1500-2000 ml of pancreatic juice, which creates a certain load on it. The secret is accompanied by an alkaline reaction, neutralizes the aggressive effects of gastric juice before food enters it from the 12-duodenum. This is necessary so that hydrochloric acid does not corrode the mucous membranes.
The head of the pancreas is located next to the duodenum, in this place is the common duct, which connects to the channel that conducts bile.
Regulation of pancreatic juice production is a multi-level process with certain patterns. The activity of working cells that contribute to the production of the required substances is influenced by the activity of the central nervous system.
Numerous scientific experiments have shown that the activity of the pancreas increases not only when food enters the body, but also at the sight of food, the smell of food, or just mention of it. Such activity is due to the influence of the vegetative part of the nervous system.
In turn, the parasympathetic part also increases the activity of the pancreas through the influence of the vagus nerve. And the sympathetic nervous system is focused on reducing the activity of the digestive organ.
Normal operation of the pancreas due to the properties of gastric secretions. If the increased acidity thereof is detected, this leads to mechanical expansion, as a result, the production of digestive enzymes increases.
The increase in acidity and expansion of the duodenum also lead to the development of components that are focused on stimulating the functionality of the gland. These include secretin and cholecystokinin.
Gland is not only stimulated, enhancing its work, but also inhibiting. This function belongs to the sympathetic nervous system by:
There is an amazing flexibility of the internal organ: it adapts to the daily diet depending on the preference of people. If there is a lot of protein in food, trypsin is produced predominantly; if it is fat, then lipase.
The excretory and intra secretory functions of the pancreas are responsible for many processes in the human body. Exocrine activity is observed during the digestion of food. As already noted, iron can produce up to 2000 ml of pancreatic juice per day.
It is this secret that facilitates the processes of food digestion, since it contains digestive enzymes that break down organic components that enter the body along with food.
The cleavage of carbohydrate, protein and fatty substances to the smallest molecules, which are also cleaved by enzymes to an acceptable state, is subsequently detected, later they are absorbed in the intestine.
Pancreatic juice enters the duodenum - characterized by the same osmotic pressure with blood plasma. Most of it is water and electrolyte, the smaller one contains enzymes. Concentration of electrolytes always fluctuates.
During the day, the pancreas produces up to 20 g of fermented proteins. This means that the body is dominant in the body by its ability to produce enzyme substances. The release of enzymes due to stimulation of the body. The process of removing the enzyme components from the cells does not depend on the enzyme production. In general, secretagens directly control the release of protein from a stationary cell.
The enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of proteins found in pancreatic juice are determined in an inactive form. This appears to be a kind of protection of the pancreas from self-digestion. Enzymes are activated exclusively in the duodenum 12. Enterokinase, synthesized by the intestinal mucosa, acts as an activator.
This is what causes the cascade phenomenon of enzymes.
The intrasecretory part of the pancreas is responsible for the normal concentration of sugar in the human body. The content of glucose regulate certain hormones. Their functionality is described by the endcretory mechanism of the processes. In other words, clusters of cells (pancreatic islets) secrete the hormone glucagon and insulin.
Insulin is focused on reducing the concentration of sugar, glucagon, on the contrary, increases the content. If there is a shortage of insulin, then there is a chronic disease - diabetes. It happens a little, or it is not synthesized at all.
This pathology is ranked among the most complex diseases of the pancreatic endocrine gland. During the course of diabetes, the functionality of the internal organ is significantly impaired, which leads to the development of complications. Against the background of the absence of glycemic correction, there is a threat not only to the health, but also to the life of the patient.
Diabetes mellitus is of the following types:
- The first type is characterized by a deficiency of insulin, with glucagon in the normal range or slightly above the permissible limits.
- The second type of the disease occurs on the background of a normal amount of insulin, but the syndrome of insulin resistance is manifested.
The intrasecretory function of the pancreas is impaired due to various reasons - age-related changes in the body, malnutrition, hypodynamia, pathologies of the digestive tract, gastrointestinal tract, etc.
Prevention of organ dysfunction
When a malfunction of the pancreas occurs, problems with the functioning of other internal organs and systems are observed. The pancreas appears to be a "capricious" organ, which is experiencing a double load due to its functionality.
Dysfunction of the gland is twofold. It can work excessively (hyperfunction) or slowly (hypofunction). When inflammation is diagnosed with pancreatitis. The dominant symptom is a violation of the digestive process.
Gland dysfunction can be the result of certain diseases. These include gastritis, duodenitis, ulcerative lesions of the stomach and duodenum. The list also includes chronic cholecystitis, biliary dyskinesia, gallstone disease, and other diseases.
In order to prevent malfunction in the work of the pancreas, the following advice of medical specialists should be followed:
- Stop smoking, reduce alcohol consumption;
- Eliminate heavy physical exertion;
- Lead a healthy lifestyle - a balanced diet, sports - gymnastics, breathing exercises, swimming, water aerobics;
- Periodically undergo a preventive examination by a doctor, an ultrasound of the gallbladder;
- Visit a gastroenterologist at least once a year.
In the prevention of pancreatitis great attention is paid to the diet. Since more than 70% of cases of pancreatitis are attributed to harmful eating habits and alcohol abuse. Eat moderately, regularly, in small portions. Give preference to vegetables and fruits, which are abundant in vitamins and minerals.
Pancreatic dysfunction manifests with various symptoms. If there is pain in the upper abdomen, indigestion, nausea and other signs, it is recommended to visit a medical institution for a diagnosis.
The structure and function of the pancreas are discussed in the video in this article.