Often, pressure pills for diabetes mellitus type 2 patients with an established diagnosis are also taken regularly, as are sugar-reducing drugs.
Such a factor is due to the fact that the pathological process is negatively reflected not only on the normal working capacity of the pancreas, but also pulls various complications from other systems and organs of the human body.
The development of diabetes is dangerous not only the main signs and symptoms of pathology, but also an increased risk of negative consequences, disruption of the normal functioning of many internal organs and body systems.
First of all, in type 2 diabetes mellitus, the performance of the cardiovascular and circulatory system begins to deteriorate. As a rule, the result of such violations are:
- deterioration of blood supply throughout the body;
- increases the risk of stroke or myocardial infarction;
- high blood pressure;
- atherosclerosis, the occurrence of blood clots as a result of blockage of blood vessels and arteries.
Besides Moreover, the negative consequences that may arise during the progression of diabetes include:
Complete or partial loss of visual acuity, as the retinal retina is destroyed as a result of high blood sugar levels. The development of diabetic neuropathy, which manifests itself in the form of the strongest pain in the lower extremities.
Impaired normal functioning of the kidneys and liver. Reduced immunity.
Various diseases of the nervous system. The nerves of the limbs are most often affected, which leads to numbness and loss of sensitivity of the limbs. Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The development of various diseases of the skin.
That is why it is so important to diagnose the disease in a timely manner and to begin a comprehensive treatment.
Increased blood pressure in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus and disorders that manifest themselves in the form of persistent high blood pressure are two inseparably linked concepts. It should be noted that hypertension can be one of the causes of the appearance of pathology and develop after the establishment of diabetes.
However, both diseases have a negative impact on the functioning of the body, which can manifest itself in the form of:
- lesion of cerebral vessels;
- problems with normal cardiac performance;
- negative impact on the state of the eye vessels;
- renal impairment.
Most often, hypertension in diabetes mellitus causes the following pathologies to appear:
- Myocardial infarction and stroke.
- Ischemia of the heart.
- There is a gradual violation of cerebral circulation.
- The development of terminal renal failure.
The onset of such a negative process as diabetes mellitus always begins with the manifestation of insulin resistance, which manifests itself as a partial loss of sensitivity of the tissues to the insulin produced by the hormone. The body, to compensate for this decrease in sensitivity, begins to produce much more insulin, which increases blood pressure and leads to the development of hypertension.
In the process of manifestation of diabetes mellitus, the lumen of blood vessels (as a result of atherosclerosis) gradually narrows, which further increases the development of hypertension.
In addition, for diabetics, abdominal obesity is characteristic, which increases the workload of the cardiovascular system, increasing blood pressure. Thus, all the processes occurring in the body are inextricably linked. And the failure of one body pulls the violations of the functionality of others.
It should be noted that in a healthy person blood pressure during sleep and immediately after waking up is slightly lower than the established rate. The development of diabetes leads to the fact that the pressure does not decrease at night, and in some cases, it can even rise.
That is why the therapy used for diabetes mellitus of the second type often includes medications for pressure.
How to make the right choice of tools?
What pills can you drink to treat hypertension in diabetes, so as not to provoke the manifestation of negative reactions? It is necessary to take drugs only as prescribed by the attending physician who do not increase the level of glucose in the blood.
Today, the pharmacological market offers a wide range of different medicines with antihypertensive effects. However, most of them are forbidden to take in the presence of diabetes.
When choosing a medicine for pressure in diabetes, the following factors should be considered:
- The impact of funds on lipid and carbohydrate metabolic processes in the body. The medicine should be chosen in such a way that its action is neutral or improves the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.
- Pills for high blood pressure should not be contraindicated in the presence of problems with the health of the kidneys or liver.
- It is better to choose a cure for diabetes pressure with organoprotective effects. Such drugs contribute to improving the health of damaged organs.
Medicines for high blood pressure of the old generation with diabetes are not recommended. Such drugs of central exposure have their contraindications in the presence of diabetes.
People who have diabetes and hypertension at the same time have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular complications. That is why, therapeutic treatment should be aimed at a gradual decrease in blood pressure - in the first month to 140/90 mm. Hg Art., in the case of good tolerability of drugs. In the future, therapy involves lowering to 130/80.
The main factor is how the patient takes the medication. If there is a risk of complications or the degree of portability of the tablets does not reach high marks, it makes sense to slowly and gradually reduce blood pressure.
The attending physician must fully control the process. It is better if the pressure drops ten percent per month if the patient is feeling well.
As a rule, treatment takes about three to four weeks, after which the prescribed dosages are adjusted.
Groups of drugs for hypertension?
Today, there are such main groups of drugs that help fight hypertension:
- drugs of central exposure;
- alpha and beta blockers;
- calcium antagonists;
- ACE inhibitors (ACE inhibitors);
- angiotesin two receptor antagonists;
- diuretic drugs;
- medication diuretic.
Beta blockers are most often prescribed by the attending physician if there is a concomitant disease in the form of arrhythmia or ischemic heart disease. The main differences between these drugs are the following characteristics:
- The ability to expand vessels.
Preparations alphablockers well lower a high level of arterial pressure, besides they have a favorable effect on fat and carbohydrate metabolism, increase tissue sensitivity to insulin. However, in spite of all sorts of advantages, it is necessary to use them with extreme caution. Such drugs can cause orthostatic hypotension (a sharp drop in pressure), tissue swelling and tachycardia. In addition, people with heart failure are among the contraindications to their use.
Calcium antagonists are highly effective drugs, but long-term use of them can lead to a decrease in insulin production by the pancreas. As soon as the abolition of such a drug occurs, the body begins to work with the same force. The positive properties of tablets are:
- lowering blood pressure levels, even with the use of medications in minimal doses;
- the risk of developing insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus does not increase.
Calcium antagonists may be of short or prolonged exposure. Depending on the type of drug, its therapeutic properties and the possibility of adverse reactions occur. Often these medications are prescribed to patients for the prevention of stroke, with a high level of upper blood pressure.
ACE inhibitors are the best option for lowering blood pressure in diabetics. They have a positive effect on the work of the cardiovascular system, metabolism, and the performance of the kidneys and liver.
Drugs from the group of ACE inhibitors should be prescribed exclusively by the attending physician, as they have a number of contraindications to use.
It is forbidden to use medical devices for those who have obstructive pulmonary pathology in case of bronchial asthma. Tablets can cause dry cough and other adverse reactions.
Can not be used in the presence of renal failure, before using the medication it is necessary to monitor blood pressure indicators, creatinine and potassium levels in the blood.
Medications in this group are usually not prescribed for elderly people with atherosclerosis, as renal artery stenosis may occur.
Diuretic medications, as a rule, are prescribed in complex therapy with drugs of the ACE inhibitor group. The main strengths of such diuretic tablets are:
- Mild effects on the body.
- Do not affect the level of glucose and lipids in the blood.
- Do not impair the work of the liver and kidneys.
The best use of such diuretics can be drugs Indapamide and Arefon-retard.
Overview of preformed drugs
The main non-selective drugs from the group of beta blockers are Anaprilin and Nadodol tablets, which have a direct effect on the receptors located in the pancreas. As a result of their impact, there is an inhibition of the release of the hormone insulin. Antihypertensive drugs for diabetes is better to choose the selective type. These are, above all, the drugs Atenolol, Bisoprolol, Metoprolol. Such drugs have a positive effect on the work of the heart.
Lipophilic beta blockers are presented on the pharmaceutical market by such tabletted agents as Metoprolol and Pindolol. Their distinguishing feature is that they are completely removed from the body by the liver. That is why, in the development of diabetes, such drugs are prescribed extremely rarely, so as not to cause serious deterioration of organ function.
Atenolol and Nadolol are included in the group of water-soluble beta-blocker drugs. Such drugs have a long-lasting effect after ingestion, and also do not have a negative impact on the work of the liver and kidneys.
Beta blockers of a vasodilating effect have a beneficial effect on the reduction of insulin resistance syndrome, increasing the sensitivity of tissues to insulin. In addition, among their positive properties can be attributed a positive effect on the normalization of lipid and fat metabolism. Taking such tableted drugs, you must carefully review the list of possible adverse reactions, since their list is quite large. The main representatives of this class of drugs are Nebivolol and Cardiovolol.
From the group of calcium antagonist drugs to patients with diabetes mellitus, it is better to take long-acting dihydropyridines. Such drugs have a positive effect on the health of the kidneys. Their main representatives are Verapamil and Diltiazem.
ACE inhibitors are often prescribed for the development of diabetes mellitus to lower blood pressure. They eliminate the signs of hypertension, reduce the load on the heart, and also prevent the development of cardiac pathologies. The main drugs in this group are Captopril, Ramipril and Fosinopril.
Angiotesin 2 receptor antagonists are a relatively new group of drugs with little chance of side effects. Such tablets are marketed under the following names:
The advantages of angiotecin receptor antagonist drugs are a reduction in the risk of stroke and heart attack, a beneficial effect on the kidneys, and a low incidence of adverse reactions.
Which pill is better to abstain in the presence of diabetes?
Despite the large selection of different drugs that can reduce high blood pressure, it should be borne in mind that not all drugs can be suitable for people with diabetes.
It is forbidden to take thiazide diuretic drugs (Hypothiazide, Chlorothiazide, Xipamide), as they contribute to an increase in blood sugar and an increase in harmful cholesterol. In addition, these pills have a negative effect on the work of the kidneys, which is especially dangerous for people with renal insufficiency. Osmotic diuretics in type 2 and type 1 diabetes mellitus can lead to hyperosmolar coma in diabetics.
Antihypertensive drugs from the group of calcium antagonists are not recommended to be taken in case the medicine belongs to short-acting dihydropyrides. Such tablets, even in small dosages, significantly increase the risk of cardiac mortality and are contraindicated in patients with diabetes in the presence of ischemic heart disease and heart attack. The main representative of this type of drug is Nifedipine.
The drug from the group of beta-blockers Atenolol can provoke glucose jumps in the blood and lead to the occurrence of hypo-or hyperglycemia. In addition, this drug reduces the sensitivity of tissues to insulin produced by the pancreas.
What pills can be taken with high blood pressure in diabetes will tell the video in this article.