Diabetes

Stages of diabetes mellitus in blood sugar?

According to statistics, every third person in the world has diabetes. Such popularity puts this disease on a par with AIDS, tuberculosis and oncology.

Diabetes develops when carbohydrate metabolism is disturbed. All this leads to a malfunction of the pancreas producing insulin - a hormone involved in the processing of glucose in the body.

If this mechanism fails, then there will be an increased accumulation of sugar in the blood. In this state, the tissues of the body can not hold water in their cells, and it begins to be removed from the body.

To understand how to get rid of diabetes, you need to learn as much as possible about the disease. To this end, it is necessary to understand the causes, symptoms, forms and stages of the disease.

Factors and main features

Diabetes develops for a variety of reasons. This may be a genetic predisposition, infectious diseases, stress, and even physiological trauma.

Also, the appearance of the disease contributes to the wrong lifestyle, in particular the abuse of fast-carbohydrate food and lack of physical activity. And if this is all combined with regular drinking and smoking, then there is a high probability that by the age of 40 the person will constantly have an overestimated level of sugar in the blood.

In addition, hypertension and atherosclerosis, in which cholesterol is deposited on the vascular walls, can cause disruptions in carbohydrate metabolism. As a result, the vascular lumen is narrowed and the blood circulation of all tissues and organs is disturbed.

Regarding the clinical picture of diabetes, its first sign is thirst and frequent urination. Other symptoms are associated with this disease:

  1. excessive sweating;
  2. dry mucous membranes and skin;
  3. weight changes (drastic weight loss or weight gain);
  4. muscle weakness;
  5. fatigue;
  6. prolonged skin regeneration;
  7. development of purulent processes.

Forms and severity

There are two main forms of diabetes mellitus - insulin-dependent and insulin-independent. The latter is found in 90% of cases, and the former is diagnosed in only 10% of patients.

Insulin-dependent is type 1 diabetes. Often the disease occurs at a young age (up to 30 years). The main cause of pathology is a decrease or complete cessation of insulin production by the pancreas.

As a rule, this type of diabetes appears with genetic susceptibility and against the background of viral diseases. This disease is dangerous because it can develop for a long time (2-3 months or a couple of years), as a result of which a severe form of diabetes is formed when the patient is completely dependent on insulin.

Type 2 diabetes (insulin-dependent) often affects people as young as 40. The leading factor in the appearance of the disease is insulin deficiency. This phenomenon occurs on the background of the pathology of insulin receptors, because of which the tissues lose their insulin sensitivity.

Most often, this disease occurs in people with obesity, because overeating contributes to an increase in blood sugar. At the same time, glucose cannot penetrate into the cells, as they are not insulin resistant. At the same time, the pancreas produces a hormone in large quantities, because of which beta cells are depleted and diabetes appears.

In addition to the main types, the development of other forms of the disease is also possible. For example, the disease may occur with malnutrition.

This type of disease is called tropical, as it is common in Indonesia and India. Its main cause is protein deficiency in childhood.

Other forms of the disease are symptomatic and gestational diabetes. The first is a sign of another disease. It occurs in the pathologies of the adrenal glands, thyroid and pancreas.

Gestational diabetes is diagnosed in pregnant women, against a background of elevated hormone levels. This decreases the sensitivity of the receptors to insulin, which contributes to the appearance of symptoms of diabetes. But often after the birth of a child, similar symptoms disappear on their own.

There are various degrees of disease severity:

  • easy;
  • average;
  • heavy

With a mild degree, the concentration of sugar in the blood rises to only 10 mmol / l. Glucose is not detected in the urine, and there are no pronounced symptoms.

The average degree is characterized by hyperglycemia, when the figures exceed 10 mmol / l. When this sugar is detected in the urine. This stage is characterized by such symptoms as dry mouth, malaise, thirst, frequent urination and a tendency to purulent formations on the skin, as shown in the photo.

Severe diabetes mellitus develops in violation of all metabolic processes, when the concentration of sugar in the blood and urine is too high.

At this stage, the clinical picture of the disease becomes pronounced, symptoms of neurological, vascular complications occur and the likelihood of developing diabetic coma increases.

Stages of diabetes

Type 1 diabetes occurs when there is a failure in the production of insulin, which is involved in the process of glucose oxidation. The decrease in hormone production occurs gradually, therefore, different stages of development of type 1 diabetes mellitus are distinguished.

Each of the stages has specific symptoms and laboratory signs. Moreover, with each phase, these manifestations are enhanced.

So, stage 1 diabetes mellitus often occurs against a background of hereditary predisposition. At this stage, the symptoms do not yet appear, but laboratory tests show the presence of defective genes.

This stage is the primary indicator of diabetes, the development of which can be stopped or slowed down. To do this, you must regularly monitor the level of glycemia and carefully monitor the state of their own health.

In the second stage of diabetes, so-called catalyzing factors appear. It is worth noting that a genetic predisposition is not an accurate guarantee that the patient will develop diabetes. After all, today the causes of the disease are not fully understood, so the bacterial or viral infection can also be the impetus for the development of the disease.

The third stage is very bright in patients with immune-mediated diabetes. The chronic form of immune insulitis develops in about 2-3 years and only after that the disease will be detected in clinical tests showing a decrease in the concentration of b-cells.

The fourth stage of development is called tolerant diabetes. During this period, there is no systematic symptomatology, but the patient may experience weakness and he often has furunculosis and conjunctivitis.

At stage 5 of type 1 diabetes, the clinical picture of the disease becomes pronounced. If there is no adequate treatment, the disease progresses rapidly and after 2-4 weeks the patient has life-threatening symptoms, including diabetic ketoacidosis. To slow the development of the disease, insulin therapy is necessary.

In the last stage of the progression of type 1 diabetes, laboratory tests show that the pancreas stops producing insulin completely.

And how many developmental stages of type 2 diabetes? There are three stages in the progression of the insulin-independent form of the disease:

  1. compensatory (reversible);
  2. subcompensatory (partially treatable);
  3. compensation period characterized by irreversible changes.

Prevention and treatment

To prevent the development of diabetes you need to eat right. To this end, fast-food and junk food should be eliminated from the diet and enriched with natural products (vegetables, dairy products, fruits, lean meat and fish, legumes).

You should also do sports. After all, if you spend only 30 minutes of daily time on physical activity, you can activate metabolic processes, saturate the body with oxygen and improve the condition of the heart and blood vessels. Even with a predisposition to diabetes, it is necessary to get rid of bad habits, such as alcohol and tobacco abuse.

But what about those who have already been diagnosed with the disease and is it possible to get rid of diabetes completely? Much depends on the type and stage of the disease. For example, if it is type 2 diabetes, which is in the initial stage of development, then the disease can be reversed in the same ways as for its prevention.

Insulin-independent diabetes mellitus of the stage, which is varied, is treated as follows:

  • mild form - improvement can be achieved with the help of diet therapy and administration of glucose-lowering agents;
  • medium degree - therapy consists in daily intake of 2-3 capsules of drugs that eliminate glycemia;
  • In the diagnosis of severe diabetes mellitus, in addition to the measures described above, insulin therapy is necessary.

Thus, there are three main forms of diabetes - pre-diabetic, latent and overt. All of them require compulsory treatment, because otherwise the course of the disease can lead to the development of dangerous complications, such as hypoglycemic coma, neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy and so on. In order to prevent the progression of such consequences, it is necessary to examine the body at least once a year and pass blood tests for sugar, especially to those who are at risk.

Forms, stages and severity of diabetes are discussed in the video in this article.

Watch the video: What is a normal blood sugar level? (September 2019).