We all know about normal hemoglobin from school biology. But when the doctor starts talking about glycated hemoglobin, patients usually fall into a stupor.
Few people know that, in addition to the usual in our blood, there is also glycated hemoglobin, and its formation is a completely natural process.
This type of compound is formed due to the reaction of glucose and oxygen, which subsequently form an inseparable compound “living” in the blood for 3 months.
Its concentration is measured in%, and its quantitative content in the blood makes it possible to accurately determine not only the presence of diabetes, but also smaller violations in carbohydrate metabolism. The more sugar in the blood, the more glycated hemoglobin will be detected.
Also, this indicator can increase and decrease under the influence of many other third-party factors. About what can be considered the norm, and what circumstances may trigger a pathological change in the indicator, read below.
Glycated hemoglobin: the norm in diabetes
Glycated hemoglobin analysis is not only for diagnostic purposes. It also allows you to determine how well the patient manages to control the illness, and how productive the course of treatment prescribed is. To assess whether a person has a predisposition to the development of diabetes, as well as the extent of the pathological processes occurring in his body, specialists apply generally established indicators of the norm.
Based on these figures, it is possible to draw full conclusions regarding the state of human health.If during the analysis the indicator was found to be less than 5.7%, it means that the patient has no problems with carbohydrate metabolism, and the risk of developing diabetes is minimal.
If the result is in the range of 5.6 to 6.0%, the patient is diagnosed with insulin resistance. To avoid the development of diabetes, it is necessary to follow a low carbohydrate diet. Higher rates indicate the presence of diabetes.
A score of 8% or more indicates the presence of type 1 diabetes. If the amount of HbA1c content is 10% or more, it can be assumed that the patient develops diabetic complications (for example, ketoacidosis), and he needs urgent medical care.
If the patient in the course of the study was identified rate of 7%, it indicates the presence of type 2 diabetes.
To confirm the diagnosis, the specialist will refer the patient for additional examination. The lower the glycated hemoglobin index, the better is diabetes compensation.
Therefore, it is extremely important for diabetics to control blood glucose levels in order to prevent an increase in the concentration of glycated compounds.
What should be glycated hemoglobin in diabetes in pregnant women?Since there are serious changes in the body of pregnant women, for this category of patients undergoing an appropriate examination, specialists have developed a separate table of normal values.
If the result of the study was no more than 6%, the risk of developing diabetes is minimal.
A woman can lead a habitual life for the future mother, observing the usual daily routine and diet.
With an indicator of 6-6.5% diabetes mellitus is not yet, but the probability of its development is significantly increased. In this case, experts can safely talk about the violation of glucose tolerance. This condition is borderline for pregnant.
In order not to provoke a further rise in blood sugar levels, the expectant mother should control her weight, follow a low carbohydrate diet, move more and be observed by an endocrinologist right up to the birth.
Indicators of more than 6.5% indicate the presence of gestational diabetes. In this case, the patient is prescribed an additional examination, according to the results of which the expectant mother will be prescribed a course of treatment.
HbA1c with reactive hypoglycemia
Reactive hypoglycemia can develop in absolutely healthy people and diabetics. The reason for this state of affairs can be many factors, including the long-term observance of a low-carb diet, fasting, experienced stress, and many other circumstances.
The onset of reactive hypoglycemia can occur under different conditions. It all depends on the characteristics of the disease and its type.
For patients with good compensation, HbA1c is considered to be 7%, and lower rates (4-5% or less) cause the development of reactive hypoglycemia.
In patients with type 1 diabetes, reactive hypoglycemia occurs with a decrease in HbA1c below 7.5%, and in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, if HbA1c drops below 8.5%.
The reasons for the deviation of the indicator from the standard in diabetics
Indicators of glycated hemoglobin in diabetics are not always elevated. In some cases, a decrease is observed. Both the first and second options are pathologies, which can be caused by various factors in diabetic patients. Read more about what can cause such a change in the situation below.
A sharp jump in glycated hemoglobin in diabetics can be triggered by the following circumstances:
- lack of control of blood sugar levels, as a result of which there is a constant increase;
- anemia with iron deficiency.
These factors may be sufficient to obtain distorted indicators. In order to prevent sudden increases in HbA1c, diabetics should carefully monitor their blood sugar levels and carefully follow all the doctor’s recommendations for taking prescribed medications.
Lower scores are also due to third-party causes.
Among the circumstances that could lead to a decline in indicators are the following problems:
- the course of neoplastic processes in the pancreas;
- uncontrolled intake of drugs that lower blood sugar levels;
- abundant blood loss.
The reduced content of the HbA1c level also needs to be corrected. Its shortage can cause the development of depression, fatigue, dizziness and other unpleasant symptoms.
What should be glycated hemoglobin in diabetes? The answer in the video:
A blood test for glycated hemoglobin is an informative method of diagnosing diabetes and other pathologies related to carbohydrate metabolism that is accessible to most patients. Using this diagnostic method, you can monitor the effectiveness of therapy, as well as the ability of the patient to control the existing disease.
Therefore, having received a referral from your doctor to undergo the relevant research, you should not neglect them. Timely diagnosis will help maintain health and prevent the development of diabetic complications.