Diabetes

The main signs and principles of treatment of diabetes in newborns

Diabetes in infants is very rare. Moreover, it is diagnosed completely by chance with the development of ketoacidosis or diabetic coma.

One of the most pronounced signs, which is very important to pay attention to, is the small weight of the newborn baby, which was born earlier.

Diabetes in such children is quite difficult, because of the lack of glycogen in the liver acidosis occurs (an increase in the acidity of the acid-base balance of the body). Another associated symptoms include an insufficient amount of moisture in the child's body.

Do not forget that the disease in the infant can contribute to the occurrence of frequent colds, as well as skin lesions, such as dryness, diaper rash, dermatitis, furunculosis, eczema and various congenital hemangiomas. Very often, babies are diagnosed with a significant increase in liver and cataracts. What is dangerous diabetes in newborns?

Factors affecting the development of the disease

At the moment there are several main reasons that can trigger the onset of diabetes in children who were born prematurely:

  1. taking certain medication during pregnancy. These drugs can include various anti-inflammatory and anticancer drugs, which differ in toxic effects;
  2. the appearance of this disease in infants is due to the presence of malformations of the pancreas or serious damage by beta cell viruses;
  3. In addition, diabetes from birth can develop due to an immature pancreas. As a rule, this applies to those children who are considered premature.

Symptoms

Characterizing diabetes in newborns symptoms are as follows:

  • restless behavior of the baby;
  • onset of symptoms that indicate dehydration (feeling of thirst);
  • in the presence of normal appetite, the child does not gain weight;
  • the urine of the newborn is sticky, and also leaves traces on clothes or diapers (the so-called “starch spots”);
  • the presence of diaper rash and various inflammatory processes on the skin;
  • the development of inflammation in the genital area (in boys in the foreskin, and in girls - vulvitis).
In the absence of proper treatment in the second month of life, the baby has serious signs of intoxication, which may well lead to coma. In order to diagnose diabetes, a specialist must conduct an appropriate clinical study.

Congenital diabetes

This type of disease is type 1 diabetes. It is also called insulin-dependent.

Moreover, it is due to the so-called genetic predisposition. In this disease, the pancreas of the baby is not able to produce insulin in sufficient quantities.

It is because of this that the concentration of sugar in the blood plasma increases, which has a devastating effect on the organs of the excretory system of the newborn, nerve endings, blood vessels and other vital organs.

Those babies who suffer from diabetes need an injection of the pancreas daily. In addition, the so-called blood sugar control is very important. Parents should take care of this so that the child does not receive serious and dangerous complications.

Causes of congenital diabetes are:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • injuries;
  • viral diseases that were transferred to the expectant mother.

As a rule, congenital diabetes is diagnosed in children.

Moreover, he absolutely can not be treated, but it is quite possible to control it with appropriate insulin injections daily. This dangerous and serious disease affects all organs negatively.

Such diabetics in infants as thirst, rapid weight loss, frequent urination, fatigue, weakness, irritability, and vomiting are distinguished.

Congenital diabetes can lead to such unintended consequences:

  1. since the concentration of sugar in the blood is still very high, the small vessels of the eyeballs of the child can be damaged. Often, the veins and capillaries of the kidneys are damaged. Toddlers who suffer from this type of diabetes have a fairly high risk of developing renal failure and even complete blindness. Previous studies have shown that the devastating effects of diabetes on the organs of the excretory system can be completely prevented by using a drug called Captopril. It is considered a drug that is usually prescribed for hypertension. There is still a chance that diabetes will have a negative effect on blood circulation in the lower extremities, which sooner or later leads to their amputation;
  2. in the course of extensive damage to the nervous system, there is a non-passing feeling of numbness and pain in the legs;
  3. the risk of increasing blood pressure also increases significantly, as a result of which cholesterol accumulation accelerates, which can lead to the development of myocardial infarction and stroke.
If congenital diabetes is not treated, it can lead to irreversible consequences. It is very important when detecting the first symptoms in a baby, which indicate the presence of this disease in him, immediately contact a pediatrician to clarify the circumstances.

Treatment and Prevention

When identifying the first signs of diabetes in infants, you should immediately visit a specialist.

The treatment of the disease is the introduction of the hormone of the pancreas - insulin. This method is called insulin therapy.

It is important to note that breastfeeding is considered a priority, but if it is impossible to breastfeed, the baby is transferred to special formulas that do not incorporate glucose. As a rule, the disease can be identified by carefully studying the symptoms.

The first signs of diabetes in infants are characterized by polyuria, which in newborns is regarded as bed-wetting and polydipsia. It is also worth noting that the concentration of sugar in the blood on an empty stomach and in the daily urine in children is high. That is why, in order to determine glucose tolerance, it is necessary to clarify the raw sugar content.

Treatment of diabetes in newborns must be complex with the use of insulin and diet therapy, which are directed not only to the treatment of the main disease, but also to ensure proper physical development.

But with regard to nutrition, it must necessarily be balanced and appropriate age physiological norms.

Do not forget that the so-called extractive dishes must be completely excluded. With regard to the need for sugar, during the period of therapy it should be covered by the consumption of carbohydrates in sufficient quantities. The main source of this nutrient is breast milk. Another child must receive vegetables and fruits. It is important to note that easily digestible sugars, sweets and fats should be constantly limited.

In the presence of pronounced ketosis and acetonuria, you must immediately significantly reduce the consumption of fat, while maintaining a sufficient amount of carbohydrates. Babies need to use a special low-fat cottage cheese, cereal and all kinds of meat dishes, steamed.But as for the injection of pancreatic hormone, they need to be done at intervals of eight hours.

It should not be forgotten to take into account the high sensitivity to insulin. In no case is it recommended in infancy to give the child special antidiabetic drugs.

With regard to mandatory preventive measures, it is necessary to immediately establish a dispensary observation of a child from those families where there are relatives suffering from diabetes.

The concentration of glucose should be checked regularly, both in blood and in urine. In addition, be sure to completely eliminate the use of products containing sugar (mainly, these are sweets). It is very important to observe those children who were born with a large body mass (more than four kilograms).

In infants with all the symptoms of prediabetes, special glycemic curves with two loads should be investigated. The treatment prognosis for early diagnosis is quite favorable. If parents carefully monitor the condition of the child, as well as adhere to proper nutrition, diet and proper treatment, the body will be in order, and the manifestations of the disease will completely disappear.

In some cases, the baby may develop neonatal diabetes. At the first signs of this disease, it is important to immediately contact your doctor for help.

Related videos

On the main symptoms of diabetes in children in the video:

As can be understood from this article, diabetes in infants represents a great danger to his body. And often it is almost asymptomatic, so you can learn about its presence quite by accident. It all depends on the care of parents: if they follow the emergence of new and strange symptoms, they will be able to recognize the disease in a timely manner and consult a doctor.

But, quite often it happens that they do not notice any changes until the newborn gets worse. After the appearance of sufficiently obvious signs of the presence of diabetes, they turn to pediatricians, but it may already be too late, and the child can be difficult to save.

Watch the video: Checking Your Blood Glucose. Diabetes Discharge. Nucleus Health (September 2019).