Diabetes in cats develops due to disruption of the pancreas, which leads to an acute shortage of insulin in the blood. Symptoms of the disease may appear with an increased amount of sugar in the blood of the animal and the body's inability to redirect glucose for energy.
Cats can suffer from different types of diabetes. When the first type of beta cells are almost completely killed, which leads to the impossibility of restoring the health of the pancreas. Diabetes in cats of the first type develops quite rarely. In the case of diabetes of the second type, the beta cells do not die off and can continue full-fledged work, releasing insulin. Meanwhile, cell count decreases, which leads to a lack of insulin in the body. First of all, diabetes mellitus develops due to obesity.
Signs of diabetes in cats
This endocrine disease is considered one of the most common among animals. The initial symptoms of the disease can be detected when the cat reaches the age of five or six years. Also, diabetes mellitus is quite common in older cats. In this case, cats most often suffer from a lack of insulin than cats.
Despite the lack of accurate information on the statistics of diabetes, it is known that today there are more and more cats that suffer from this disease. The main reason for this - overfeeding pets. According to experts, an animal that weighs one and a half kilograms more than its own normal weight is one of obese cats.
Thus, pets that weigh more than six kilograms automatically fall into the number of those who may have diabetes of the first or second type. These figures refer only to cats of standard weight; to larger breeds, other calculations of weight categories are applied.
Symptoms of diabetes
Most often, diabetes in cats can be recognized by the strong thirst of the animal and frequent urination. This condition leads to weight loss and a sharp increase in appetite.
Very often, due to the behavior of pets, the main symptoms of the disease may not manifest for a long time, and the owner does not even have a clue that his animal is sick. This is especially true for cats that live outdoors and can independently compensate for the lack of liquid from any water sources. It is also not easy to detect the symptoms of the disease in cats that eat natural products from which they receive the necessary amount of fluid.
When it is worth sounding the alarm and contact a veterinarian:
- If the cat experiences convulsions, loses consciousness, walks erratically, as a first aid you should try to feed the animal. If this is not possible, you need to lubricate the oral mucosa with sweet syrup or glucose solution and consult a doctor.
- Similar assistance should be provided if blood sugar levels are less than 3 mmol / l.
- If the sugar in the urine drops to zero and ketones are found in the urine, a blood test for sugar should be performed.
- In case of excess of blood sugar or urine after analysis, you should contact the veterinarian within two days.
Diagnosis of diabetes
If there are suspicious symptoms in a cat, you should immediately consult a doctor. If you do not treat the cat for a long time, the animal may develop a serious condition. To prevent this, you need to pay attention to the health of the pet and to carefully monitor its illness.
To identify and prevent the development of diabetes mellitus, blood and urine analysis is performed. This will help find out how much pet blood sugar is too high.
In some cases, a high level of glucose in the blood can be caused not by a disease, but by a one-time occurrence, if the animal has experienced stress or toxic poisoning of the body has occurred. In this regard, to determine the presence of diabetes, the analysis is performed every day for a week.
If we start treatment in time and follow all the recommendations prescribed by the veterinarian, the development of sugar can be avoided. The owner must be prepared for the fact that you will have to show a lot of patience and strength to cure the pet.
The first thing you need to get rid of what can provoke the development of the disease. So, in some cases, diabetes can cause certain medications that are given to the cat for a long time. You should also worry about the weight of the pet and, if necessary, make every effort to reduce the weight of the cat.
Plump cats need to follow a special therapeutic diet. For this, expensive, high-quality, high-protein, low-carbohydrate foods are commonly used. The minimum amount of carbohydrates helps to reduce blood sugar levels. Proper nutrition will avoid complex treatment with a weak degree of the disease.
Proper diet will help regulate the level of glucose in the blood of an animal. The cat should be fed more often, but in small portions. Losing weight in fat cats and maintaining a normal body weight helps to avoid sudden surges and drops in body sugar. It is important to maintain regularity when feeding the animal and give food at strictly defined intervals. In this regard, you should always have food with a reserve to avoid skipping feeding.
In severe cases, the cat is prescribed medication and insulin in the blood. In order to find the right dose of hormone, you must contact your veterinarian. Insulin treatment is usually carried out twice a day for several days or weeks, depending on the degree of the disease. You must strictly follow the instructions of the doctor and do not exceed the prescribed dose.
How to control the treatment
In order to assess how effective the treatment is, the doctor periodically performs blood and urine tests. Based on the results, the veterinarian changes the dose of insulin or medication taken.
In order for the doctor to have complete information about the course of treatment, it is recommended that owners keep records in which all data is recorded:
- What time is insulin given?
- What amount of insulin is injected?
- What hours did the cat drink and in what quantity?
- The amount of water you drink?
- Daily cat body weight?
In addition to data on blood tests, you should track the indicators of cat urine tests. These data will help to adjust the required dose of insulin injected and find out how effective the treatment is. the same attitude is required if, for example, a cat is diagnosed with pancreatitis.
Urine taken in the morning and night hours is required for accurate data. You can take the urine from an animal by any convenient means. Especially suitable for this trays for toilet without filler, having a lattice. Also, instead of a filler, you can use gravel, which does not absorb urine, as a result of which the liquid flows to the bottom of the tray, from where it can be taken for analysis.
If such methods do not help, a urinary catheter is placed in the cat to extract the necessary amount of urine. However, this option is not suitable for everyone, since urine collection should be carried out several times a day, and prior to the installation of a catheter a sedative is required. It can also injure the ureter.
Since the indicators of blood sugar and urine will change daily, the continued assistance of veterinary specialists will be required.
Overabundance of insulin in the blood
An overabundance of insulin in the blood can be caused by an incorrectly chosen dosage of hormone administration. This in turn can lead to a sharp decrease in blood sugar levels in the cat, which can trigger hypoglycemia. In this regard, it is necessary to carefully select the dosage of the drug and always consult with veterinarians, conducting treatment.
With low blood glucose levels, a cat may be sluggish, and often an animal has an unsteady gait, frequent cramps, tremors, and a weak condition. If you experience these symptoms, you should seek help from a veterinarian. If the animal has a weak degree of hypoglycemia, you can help your pet by pouring sugar or honey solution into the cat’s mouth in a volume of one tablespoon.