Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease in which insulin is not fully produced or secreted in insufficient quantities. The leading manifestation of the disease - high blood sugar levels.
Often, diabetes of the second type, in which the cells of the body are not sensitive to insulin, occurs in women than in men. After all, the opposite sex hormonal background is unstable, and it changes in different periods of life.
The insulin-independent type of disease is much more common than type 1 diabetes. Moreover, 80% of all cases are overweight. In such patients, adipose tissue often accumulates in the area of the chest and peritoneum, and the shape becomes an apple, which is called abdominal obesity.
The causes of type 2 diabetes in women are varied. So, it can be a natural aging of the body, because with age, the body's ability to absorb sugar decreases.
Also the leading factor in the development of autoimmune pathology is obesity. In the presence of excess weight, the composition of the blood is disturbed, a lot of cholesterol accumulates in it, settling on the vascular walls, which contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. As a result, blocked vessels stop supplying oxygen to tissues and organs, nutrients in the required amount, so cells begin to assimilate glucose and insulin worse.
Other common causes are the abuse of carbohydrate foods. Increased carbohydrate content in the blood stream leads to depletion of the pancreas, delaying insulin receptors on all cells.
Also, the emergence of type 2 diabetes can lead to infectious processes, in particular, diseases suffered in childhood. Therefore, in the presence of genetic predisposition, even ordinary flu can contribute to chronic hyperglycemia.
Another cause of diabetes lies in constant stress and fatigue. This applies especially to women aged 30 years and older. In addition, the occurrence of the disease contribute to addiction, such as smoking and alcoholism.
These are the main causes of diabetes, but there are also certain risk factors that include:
- allergic diseases (neurodermatitis, eczema);
- genetic predisposition;
- early development of atherosclerosis, angina pectoris and hypertension;
- regular intake of glucocorticosteroids;
- conditions causing a sharp one-time increase in blood glucose levels on the background of pregnancy, stroke or heart attack;
- pituitary or adrenal tumor;
- pathology of pregnancy or the birth of children weighing more than 4 kg.
Usually, symptoms of type 2 diabetes in women develop at an older age (40-55 years). A specific feature of this type of disease is that it develops slowly in what is its greatest danger.
The first signs of illness are intense thirst. The patient constantly wants to drink, due to the imbalance of hormones and glucose in the body. At the same time, the girl may feel dry mouth and sore throat. It is noteworthy that in type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is impossible to fully satisfy the thirst, regardless of the amount of water consumed.
Another frequent manifestation of the disease is frequent urination, occurring against the background of increased fluid intake. But such a symptom may also accompany other diseases, such as cystitis. The daily urine volume of about 2-3 liters and more than 12 urges per day should be a cause for concern.
Indispensable signs of type 2 diabetes are apathy, drowsiness, and fatigue. The appearance of such a state is promoted by hormonal disorders. However, fatigue and bad mood can also indicate other equally dangerous female diseases.
Other symptoms of diabetes in women are drying of the skin. In fact, drinking plenty of fluids and good nutrition is reflected in the condition of the skin. When it becomes dry, wounds and cracks form on it, which heal for a very long time, and sometimes turn into ulcers.
With slowly developing type 2 diabetes, vision is often reduced, which is accompanied by a kind of symptoms:
- goose bumps;
- darkening of the eyes;
- numbness of feet and fingers;
- calf cramps;
- loss of finger sensitivity.
In addition, many diabetics are often worried about itchy skin, and in women it is especially felt in the genital area. They also decrease their libido, which is caused not only by a hormonal disorder, but also by a general deterioration of the state of the body.
The first signs of diabetes in women are failures in the menstrual cycle, which is an important component of health, responsible for preparing reproductive function for the birth of children. But if the hormones are disturbed, then it contributes to the development of gynecological diseases. Therefore, in addition to failures in menstruation, the patient has other diseases of the sexual sphere (amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea).
Climax begins at 50-60 years, quite often it leads to the development of the second type of diabetes. During this period, the female body undergoes changes, which is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- pain in the heart and lower limbs;
- stomach upset;
- weight changes;
During this period, endocrinologists advise to carry out hormonal treatment aimed at maintaining the functioning of the pancreas and preventing the development of diabetes in the future.
But what other recommendations should be followed by a woman to prevent chronic hyperglycemia?
This type of diabetes, as an insulin-independent form, can not be prevented at the first signs of a failure in metabolism. But many patients turn too late for medical help and then they have to spend maintenance therapy all their lives.
So, to prevent the onset of diabetes, or at least delay its development, you must not forget about preventive measures. It is important to maintain a normal water balance in the body, which will normalize the function of the pancreas and ensure the normal transport of glucose through the cells. Therefore, before each meal you should drink a glass of clean water, and coffee, carbonated drinks, tea and beer should be discarded.
In order not to develop type 2 diabetes in women, it is important for them to follow the diet. First of all, it is necessary to do the calculation of calories in the daily diet, so that it is not less than 1200, but not more than 2500, taking into account the increased physical activity.
It is also desirable to exclude fast carbohydrates and enrich it with fresh berries, vegetables, fruits, herbs, nuts and other foods abundant in fiber, vitamins and trace elements. Meals should be broken up to 6 times a day, while eating should be consumed in small portions.
Products that serve as excellent diabetes prevention are:
- berry decoctions based on cranberries, viburnum, hawthorn, mountain ash;
- whole grain flour products;
- vegetables (sweet peppers, radishes, beets, cabbage) and legumes.
Also, all diabetics need moderate exercise. This will prevent the risk of obesity, contribute to the elimination of harmful cholesterol, strengthen the vascular and muscular system, immunity and improve overall health.
To achieve this result, it is enough to do sports for 30 minutes every day, which will keep the cells in tone and normalize blood circulation. In addition, it is useful to take the stairs or make hourly evening walks in the fresh air, at least twice a week.
Moreover, all women should strengthen the nervous system. After all, stress is a frequent cause of the development of cardiovascular pathologies, which significantly increases the risk of failure in carbohydrate metabolism.
If a family member has a family member who has diabetes, then prevention should begin from childhood. Therefore, a girl from 4 years old can be recorded on the sports section or sent to the dance.
If diet therapy in diabetes and sports turned out to be ineffective and diabetes is still developed, then a drug treatment is carried out aimed at reducing the blood glucose levels. In this case, the symptoms and treatment of diabetes are eliminated with the help of sulfonylurea, innovative means of renewing cell resistance to insulin, buguanidov, dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors and other drugs.
What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes in women will tell the video in this article.