People began to produce and use sugar substitutes at the beginning of the last century. And the debate about whether these nutritional supplements are necessary or harmful, does not subside to this day.
The bulk of sugar substitutes is absolutely harmless and allows many people who can not use sugar to live a full life. But there are some of them that can make you feel worse, especially for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
This article will help the reader figure out which sweeteners can be used, and which are better to abstain in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Sweeteners are divided into:
To the natural include:
In addition to stevia, the remaining sugar substitutes are very high in calories. Plus, xylitol and sorbitol are almost 3 times inferior to sugar in the degree of sweetness, so using one of these products, you should keep a strict account of calories.
Patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, of these drugs is better to use only stevia, as the most harmless.
The chemical structure of xylitol is pentitol (pentahydric alcohol). It is produced from corn stalks or from wood waste.
If the unit of measurement of sweetness is to accept the taste of ordinary cane or beet sugar, then for xylitol the sweetness coefficient is close to 0.9-1.0; and its energy value is 3.67 kcal / g (15.3 kJ / g). From this it follows that xylitol is a high-calorie product.
Sorbitol is hexitol (hexahydol alcohol). The product has another name - sorbitol. In its natural state it is found in fruits and berries, the mountain ash is especially rich in them. Sorbitol is obtained by glucose oxidation.
It is a colorless, crystalline powder, sweet in taste, highly soluble in water, and resistant to boiling. In relation to regular sugar, the sweetness factor of xylitol ranges from 0.48 to 0.54.
And the energy value of the product is 3.5 kcal / g (14.7 kJ / g), which means that, like the previous sweetener, sorbitol is high in calories, and if a patient with type 2 diabetes is going to lose weight, then the choice is not the right one.
Fructose and other substitutes
Or in another way - fruit sugar. Refers to the monosaccharides of the ketohexosis group. It is an integral part of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. In nature found in honey, fruit, nectar.
Fructose is obtained by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of fructosans or sugar. The product exceeds sugar by sweets by 1.3-1.8 times, and its caloric content is 3.75 kcal / g.
It is a water soluble, white powder. When heated fructose, it partially changes its properties.
Suction of fructose in the intestine is slow, it increases the glycogen stores in the tissues and has anti-ketogenic effect. It is noticed that if you replace sugar with fructose, it will lead to a significant reduction in the risk of caries, that is, it is worth understanding. that the harm and benefits of fructose exist side by side.
Side effects of fructose include the occurrence of rarely meteorism.
Permissible daily rate of fructose - 50 grams. It is recommended for patients with compensated diabetes and having a tendency to hypoglycemia.
This plant belongs to the Compositae family and has a second name - a sweet duplex. Today, the attention of nutritionists and scientists from different countries is riveted to this amazing plant. Stevia contains sweet-tasting low-calorie glycosides, it is believed that there is nothing better than stevia for diabetics of any type.
Saccharol is an extract of stevia leaves. This is a complex of detergent high-purified glycosides. Saccharol is presented in the form of a white powder, resistant to heat and highly soluble in water.
One gram of this product is about 300 grams of sugar. Having a very sweet taste, the saccharol does not increase the level of glucose in the blood and has no energy value, so it is clear which one is better to choose a product with type 2 diabetes
Clinical and experimental studies have not found side effects in the saccharol. In addition to the sweetness effect, natural sweetener Stevia has a number of positive qualities that are suitable for diabetics of any type:
Cyclamate is the sodium salt of cyclohexylamine sulfate. It is a sweet, highly soluble powder with a slight taste.
Up to 2600C cyclamate is chemically stable. On sweets, it exceeds sucrose by 25-30 times, and the cyclamate introduced into the composition of juices and other solutions containing organic acids is 80 times sweeter. Often it is combined with saccharin in a ratio of 10: 1.
An example is the product "Ziukli". Safe daily doses of the drug are 5-10mg.
The product is well studied, and as a sweetener it has been used for more than a hundred years. Derivative of sulfobenzoic acid, from which the white salt has a sodium salt.
This is saccharin - a slightly bitter powder, well soluble in water. The taste of bitterness persists in the mouth for a long time, therefore, the combination of saccharin with dextrose buffer is used.
The bitter taste gets saccharin when boiling, as a result, the product is better not to boil, but dissolved in warm water and added to ready-made dishes. For sweets, 1 gram of saccharin is 450 grams of sugar, which is very good for type 2 diabetes.
The drug is absorbed by the intestine almost completely and in high concentrations accumulates in tissues and organs. Most of it is contained in the bladder.
Perhaps for this reason, experimental animals that have undergone saccharin tests developed bladder cancer. But further studies rehabilitated the drug, proving that it is absolutely safe.
D-peptide of L-phenylalanine ester and aspartic acid. Well soluble in water, white powder, which in the process of hydrolysis loses its sweet taste. By sweetness, aspartame exceeds sucrose by 150-200 times.
What to choose a low calorie sweetener? It is aspartame! The use of aspartame does not favor the development of caries, and its combination with saccharin enhances sweetness.
The product is available in tablets called "Slastilin". One tablet contains 0.018 grams of the active drug. You can consume up to 50 mg / kg body weight per day without any health risk.
When phenylketonuria "Slastilin" contraindicated. Suffering from insomnia, Parkinson's disease, hypertension, it is better to take aspartame with caution so as not to cause all sorts of neurological disorders.